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Flashcards in RTS - eyes Deck (26)
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Treatment options for bacterial conjunctivitis (& dosage)

Antibiotics - chloramphenicol drops or ointments -5 days treatment .
first 2 days - 1-2 drops every 2 hours
remaining 3 days - 4 times a day

(ointment) -
apply 4 times a day for 5 days


What do antibiotic eye drops do?

Stop the growth of bacteria on the surface of the eye


What is:
- The brand of antibiotic eye drops
- Storage instructions
- Licensing

store in fridge
licensed for people above age of 2


What are alternative treatment options for bacterial conjunctivitis?

Propamidine drops (brolene or golden eye)


when should bacterial eye drops not be used?

- In people who permanently wear contact lenses
- Blood dycrasias
- taking medicines affecting bone marrow


What is advice for people who wear contact lenses on taking antibiotic eye drops?

remove contacts during treatment and wait 24 hours after ending treatment to put back in


What are treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis?

Topical mast cell stabiliser sodium cromoglicate eye drops (BRAND = OPTICROM)


Why are eye drops better for allergic conjunctivitis?

they stop the release of histamine in mast cells


what is the dosage and licensing for allergic eye drops

use in patients >12 years and up to 4 times a day when required


Give examples of antihistamine eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis and what they do

Antazoline / Xylometazoline (e.g. otrivine - antistin) - sympathomimetic - act lik decongestents to dry up secretions


how long can antihistamine eye drops be used for and license?

5 days
licensed for >5 years old


What are treatment options for viral conjunctivitis?

No specific treatment - supportive therapies e.g hot/cold compress, eye drops for symptoms


Give examples of treatments for specific symptoms of viral conjunctivitis

- Decongestants to reduce surface swelling
- antihistamines reduce itching
- vasoconstrictors to whiten the eye


What are the symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis? (6)

- one/both eyes- one eye first
- sticky, yellow/green
- gritty, sore, uncomfortable
- generalised & diffused redness
- no other symptoms
- 2-3 days it lasts


Symptoms of viral conjunctivitis? (6)

Both eyes
- Watery discharge
- gritty, uncomfortable
- generalised redness
- Cough & cold symptoms aswell
- 1-2 weeks


Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis? (6)

-both eyes
- clear watery discharge
- itching
- generalised redness
- associated with - allergic rhinitis, eczema, asthma, sensitivity to light
- variable duration


Lifestyle advice for conjunctivitis

wash hands
bathe eyelids with warm water to remove discharge
clean eye - wipe from bridge of nose to outer corner with fresh piece of cotton wool
protect eyes from wind and sun via sunglasses (if its allergic)

DONT - share towels, pillows etc. Don't rub eyes and don't wear contact lenses until it has gone.


what is the expiry date for eye drops?

one month 28 days after opening


can chloramphenicol be sold to pregnant women?

No - must refer


What medicines can cause dry eyes?



General red flags for eyes

pain in eye
visual disturbance
pupils look unusual
treatment failure
upper eyelid dropping
contact lense wearers if drops are unsuitable
eye or head injury


what are other eye problems aside from conjunctivitis?

Dry eyes - tear deficiency causing discomfort
Macular degeneration - macula can't function as effectively
Blepharitis - inflammation of eyelid margins
Stye - red painful lump on eyelid
Subconjunctival haemorrhage - burst blood vessel
Cataract - sense of eye become opaque


Treatments for dry eyes - artificial tears

acetyl cysteine
polyvinyl alcohol
paraffin bases


Treatment for blepharitis

1st line - wash eyelids wth diluted baby shampoo - one part shampoo, 10 parts water
Warm compress may help to loosen crusts
Antibiotics may be needed


treatment for stye

Goes away on its own within 7-14 days but can use a warm compress - put on eye for 5 mins, 3-4 times daily until it drains
DO NOT try and puncture it


How do you apply eye drops?

wash hands
pull down lower eye lid with index finger to make pocket & tilt head back
Put the bottle between thumb and index finger and insert 1 drop into the eye
Don't touch the eye with the dropper tip and don't blink, close the eye and press gently over the corner to stop the drops going into tear duct