Flashcards in RTS - eyes Deck (26)
Treatment options for bacterial conjunctivitis (& dosage)
Antibiotics - chloramphenicol drops or ointments -5 days treatment .
first 2 days - 1-2 drops every 2 hours
remaining 3 days - 4 times a day
apply 4 times a day for 5 days
What do antibiotic eye drops do?
Stop the growth of bacteria on the surface of the eye
- The brand of antibiotic eye drops
- Storage instructions
store in fridge
licensed for people above age of 2
What are alternative treatment options for bacterial conjunctivitis?
Propamidine drops (brolene or golden eye)
when should bacterial eye drops not be used?
- In people who permanently wear contact lenses
- Blood dycrasias
- taking medicines affecting bone marrow
What is advice for people who wear contact lenses on taking antibiotic eye drops?
remove contacts during treatment and wait 24 hours after ending treatment to put back in
What are treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis?
Topical mast cell stabiliser sodium cromoglicate eye drops (BRAND = OPTICROM)
Why are eye drops better for allergic conjunctivitis?
they stop the release of histamine in mast cells
what is the dosage and licensing for allergic eye drops
use in patients >12 years and up to 4 times a day when required
Give examples of antihistamine eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis and what they do
Antazoline / Xylometazoline (e.g. otrivine - antistin) - sympathomimetic - act lik decongestents to dry up secretions
how long can antihistamine eye drops be used for and license?
licensed for >5 years old
What are treatment options for viral conjunctivitis?
No specific treatment - supportive therapies e.g hot/cold compress, eye drops for symptoms
Give examples of treatments for specific symptoms of viral conjunctivitis
- Decongestants to reduce surface swelling
- antihistamines reduce itching
- vasoconstrictors to whiten the eye
What are the symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis? (6)
- one/both eyes- one eye first
- sticky, yellow/green
- gritty, sore, uncomfortable
- generalised & diffused redness
- no other symptoms
- 2-3 days it lasts
Symptoms of viral conjunctivitis? (6)
- Watery discharge
- gritty, uncomfortable
- generalised redness
- Cough & cold symptoms aswell
- 1-2 weeks
Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis? (6)
- clear watery discharge
- generalised redness
- associated with - allergic rhinitis, eczema, asthma, sensitivity to light
- variable duration
Lifestyle advice for conjunctivitis
bathe eyelids with warm water to remove discharge
clean eye - wipe from bridge of nose to outer corner with fresh piece of cotton wool
protect eyes from wind and sun via sunglasses (if its allergic)
DONT - share towels, pillows etc. Don't rub eyes and don't wear contact lenses until it has gone.
what is the expiry date for eye drops?
one month 28 days after opening
can chloramphenicol be sold to pregnant women?
No - must refer
What medicines can cause dry eyes?
General red flags for eyes
pain in eye
pupils look unusual
upper eyelid dropping
contact lense wearers if drops are unsuitable
eye or head injury
what are other eye problems aside from conjunctivitis?
Dry eyes - tear deficiency causing discomfort
Macular degeneration - macula can't function as effectively
Blepharitis - inflammation of eyelid margins
Stye - red painful lump on eyelid
Subconjunctival haemorrhage - burst blood vessel
Cataract - sense of eye become opaque
Treatments for dry eyes - artificial tears
Treatment for blepharitis
1st line - wash eyelids wth diluted baby shampoo - one part shampoo, 10 parts water
Warm compress may help to loosen crusts
Antibiotics may be needed
treatment for stye
Goes away on its own within 7-14 days but can use a warm compress - put on eye for 5 mins, 3-4 times daily until it drains
DO NOT try and puncture it