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Pharmacy Professionalism & practice > Routes of drug administration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Routes of drug administration Deck (27)
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1

enteral routes of administration? (4)

oral (systemic/local effect)
sublingual (under tongue-absorption into mucous membranes)
Rectal (suppository, enema, rectal tube)
Buccal (absorption across mucous membrane of cheek)

2

parenteral routes of administration

Inhalational
transdermal
injection (main are intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular)

3

local routes of administration

skin topical
ocular drops
mucosal - throat, vagina, mouth, ear
intranasal
Inhalational (inhalers, aerosols, nebulisers, gaseous anaesthetics)
transdermal (patches, creams, gels, powders)

4

what is the most common route of drug administration?

oral route

5

advantages of oral route

preferred - simplest
safest
good absorption
cheap
portable

6

disadvantages of oral route

reduced bioavailability
delayed onset of action
absorption can be affected by stomach contents and pH
unsuitable in patients who are NBM (uncooperative)

7

advantages of sublingual

quick absorption and onset of action
avoids the first pass effect
can remove it if necessary

8

disadvantages of sublingual

short duration of action
if have a spray it can't be removed
unpleasant taste

9

Advantages of buccal route?

quick absorption and onset of action
avoids first pass effect
given to unconscious patients
can remove if necessary
longer duration of action compared to sublingual

10

what route can be given to unconscious patients?

buccal, rectal

11

disadvantages of buccal route

unpleasant taste

12

in the event of a facial - what route should be avoided?

buccal route

13

advantages of the rectal route

useful if the patient is vomiting or has dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
in seizures
children
unconscious patients
RAPID absorption of some drugs
useful if the particular drug causes GI irritation

14

disadvantages of rectal

erratic, irregular and unpredictable absorption of some drugs - dosage form may be eliminated before absorption is complete

15

advantages and disadvantages of the vaginal route (enteral)

pessaries, creams, tablets, capsules, solutions, spray
Advantage - local administration
Disadvantage - less favoured by some

16

advantages of subcutaneous route (under skin)

easier access than intravenous (IV)
slow uniform absorption
rate of absorption can be controlled
least painful type of injection

17

what is the least painful type of injection?

subcutaneous

18

disadvantages of subcutaneous

risk of infection
slow absorption
less predictable than intramuscular
limited volume can be administered

19

advantages and disadvantages of intramuscular

good- easier access than IV
Bad - painful, risk of infection
only a limited volume can be administered
slow, erratic absorption
avoid in children& coagulopathy

20

what is the fastest route of injection?

intravenous (IV)

21

advantages of intravenous

immediate delivery
100% bioavailability
large volumes can be administered
rapid dilution

22

DISadvantages of intravenous

painful
acute overdose is possible
risk of infection
patient is more dependent and has reduced mobility
cannot remove it once its given
expensive

23

general disadvantages of injections?

risk of infection
most are painful
cannot remove it once its given

24

what is intra-articular route and advantages/disadvantages?

injection into a joint
Good - local action
Bad - painful, limited volumes administered.
if administered incorrectly- it can damage the cartilage

25

what is intrathecal route? advantages/dis?

injection into sub-arachnoid space of meninges - by lumbar puncture.
Good- prevents malignancy, anaesthesia, treat infection
Bad - high risk, awful if wrong drug is given, risk of infection

26

what is intraperitoneal route? ad/dis?

injection into peritoneal cavity
good - local administration of antibiotics for CAPD patients
Bad - risk of infection, risk of damaging organs

27

what routes avoid the first pass effect?

sublingual
buccal