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Flashcards in RTS - ears Deck (13)
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What is ear wax?

oil produced by ears combines with epithelial cells in canal to form a waxy protective ear. When too much cerumen produced - obstructive waxy plug forms


what is otitis media?

infection of middle ear - usually associated with a cold / flu - respiratory infection - cannot be treated in community must refer - intense pain, discharge, fever, malaise, dizziness, nausea


what is otitis externa?

inflammation of the skin of the pinna or external ear canal - caused by fungus or bacteria.Common in patients with prolonged exposure to water.
- pain, fever, dizziness, malaise, fluid


What is glue ear?

common childhood condition - middle ear filled with fluid - hearing loss in one or both ears.
Clears up on its own in 3 months BUT refer if its longer or if its interfering with the Childs language development


What is tinnitus?

Ringing in the ear, or roaring, hissing, clicking etc.
Soft, loud, high pitch etc
Can be one or both ears
Always refer as the treatment depends on the cause


what is vertigo?

sensation of spinning caused by an inner ear problem - dizzy, swaying - caused by altered activity in the balance of the internal organs so ALWAYS refer if its NOT related to a migraine


what is a perforated eardrum?

hole or rupture - decreased hearing, discharge, pain
sometimes it heals spontaneously
refer if the symptoms persist with no improvement


what are the 4 treatments for ear wax

1. products to loosen wax e.g olive oil, almond, arachis (caution - made with peanut oil) - cerumol
2. Urea hydrogen peroxide 5% ear drops - Exterol - instil 5 drops once or twice daily up to 4 days
3. docusate - facilitate water penetration to loosen ear wax - Waxol
4. ear irrigation


treatments for otitis externa?

acetic acid 2% - instil at least 3 times a day every 2-3 hours - refer if no improvement after 48 hours.
- painkillers for fever and pain

BUT most cases need referral for antibiotics and steroid ear drops


treatments for otitis media?

symptomatic relief e.g painkillers, warm flannel BUT referral for antibiotics


Red flag referral symptoms for ears

severe pain
deafness / hearing loss
foreign body in ear
suspected - vertigo, tints, otitis media, perforated ear drum


lifestyle points for ears

- ear wax = dont use cotton buds, pushes it in
- don't leave cotton wool in ear, prevents removal of debris
- otitis externa = avoid irritants by using ear plugs or cotton wool coated in white soft paraffin when showering, or shower cap, clean after swimming
- ensure ear plugs, ear phones etc cleaned regularly


How many drops generally to put in - ears, eyes, nose?

Ears - 3+ drops
Eyes - 1 drop
nose - 2-3 drops