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Flashcards in PMBOK Chapter 2 Deck (26)
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“Two major categories of influences are

enterprise environmental factors (EEFs) and organizational process assets (OPAs).”


“___________ originate from the environment outside of the project and often outside of the enterprise. ”

EEFs (enterprise environmental factors )


“__________ are internal to the organization. These may arise from the organization itself, a portfolio, a program, another project, or a combination of these.”

OPAs (organizational process assets)


“___________ refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. These conditions can be internal and/or external to the organization.”

Enterprise environmental factors (EEFs)


_____________are considered as inputs to many project management processes, specifically for most planning processes. These factors may enhance or constrain project management options.”



“The following EEFs are internal to the organization:”

Organizational culture, structure, and governance.
Geographic distribution of facilities and resources.
Information technology software.
Resource availability.
Employee capability.


“The following EEFs are external to the organization.”

Marketplace conditions.
Social and cultural influences and issues.
Legal restrictions.
Commercial databases.
Academic research.
Government or industry standards
Financial considerations.
Physical environmental elements.


_________ are the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization. These assets influence the management of the project.

“Organizational process assets (OPAs)


“The ________ also include the organization's lessons learned from previous projects and historical information.



_______ may include completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data.



OPA'S may be grouped into two categories:

“Processes, policies, and procedures; and
Organizational knowledge bases.”


“The organization's processes and procedures for conducting project work include but are not limited to:”

Initiating and Planning:
Executing, Monitoring, and Controlling:


“The organizational knowledge repositories for storing and retrieving information include but are not limited to:”

“Configuration management knowledge repositories containing the versions of software and hardware components and baselines of all performing organization standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents;”

“Financial data repositories containing information such as labor hours, incurred costs, budgets, and any project cost overruns;”

“Historical information and lessons learned knowledge repositories (e.g., project records and documents, all project closure information and documentation, information regarding both the results of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance information, and information from risk management activities);”

“Issue and defect management data repositories containing issue and defect status, control information, issue and defect resolution and action item results;”

“Data repositories for metrics used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products; and

“Project files from previous projects (e.g., scope, cost, schedule, and performance measurement baselines, project calendars, project schedule network diagrams, risk registers, risk reports, and stakeholder registers).”


“A __________ is a collection of various components that together can produce results not obtainable by the individual components alone.”



“There are several principles regarding systems:”

Systems are dynamic,
Systems can be optimized,
System components can be optimized,
Systems and their components cannot be optimized at the same time, and
Systems are nonlinear in responsiveness (a change in the input does not produce a predictable change in the output).


“Governance is the framework within which authority is exercised in organizations. This framework includes but is not limited to:”

Systems, and
This framework influences how:
Objectives of the organization are set and achieved,
Risk is monitored and assessed, and
Performance is optimized.”


“____________ are the components that comprise the key functions or principles of general management in the organization.”

Management elements


“The key functions or principles of management include but are not limited to:”

Division of work using specialized skills and availability to perform work;
Authority given to perform work;
Responsibility to perform work appropriately assigned based on such attributes as skill and experience;
Discipline of action (e.g., respect for authority, people, and rules);
Unity of command (e.g., only one person gives orders for any action or activity to an individual);
Unity of direction (e.g., one plan and one head for a group of activities with the same objective);
General goals of the organization take precedence over individual goals;
Paid fairly for work performed;
Optimal use of resources;
Clear communication channels;
Right materials to the right person for the right job at the right time;
Fair and equal treatment of people in the workplace;
Clear security of work positions;
Safety of people in the workplace;
Open contribution to planning and execution by each person; and
Optimal morale.


Organizational Structure types

Organic or simple,
Functional (Centralized),
Multi-divisional (May replicate functional for each division with little centralization),
Matrix - Strong
Matrix - Weak
Matrix - Balanced
Project - Oriented (Composite, hybrid)


“A _______________ is an organizational structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques.”

project management office (PMO)


What are the types of PMOs in organizations.



____________ PMOs provide a consultative role to projects by supplying templates, best practices, training, access to information, and lessons learned from other projects. This type of PMO serves as a project repository. The degree of control provided by the PMO is low.



____________ PMOs provide support and require compliance through various means. The degree of control provided by the PMO is moderate. Compliance may involve:
Adoption of project management frameworks or methodologies;
Use of specific templates, forms, and tools; and
Conformance to governance frameworks.



_____________ PMOs take control of the projects by directly managing the projects. Project managers are assigned by and report to the PMO. The degree of control provided by the PMO is high.



A PMO may have the authority to act as an integral stakeholder and a key decision maker throughout the life of each project in order to keep it aligned with the business objectives. The PMO may:

Make recommendations,
Lead knowledge transfer,
Terminate projects, and
Take other actions, as required.


A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways, which may include but are not limited to:

Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO;
Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practices, and standards;
Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight;
Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures, and templates by means of project audits;
Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentation (organizational process assets); and
Coordinating communication across projects.