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Flashcards in PMI Lexicon of PM Terms Deck (517)
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A decision to take no action against a threat.



The specific requirements expected of project deliverables.

Acceptance criteria


A test in which a team of end users runs a product through its full range of use to identify potential problems.

Acceptance test


This process obtains the personnel and resources necessary for project work.

Acquisition process


An activity or task that must be completed.

Action item


This tracks an action item’s progress from creation to closure.

Action item status


The smallest unit of work necessary to complete a project work package.



An alphanumeric value by which activities can be grouped and filtered.

Activity code


A unique alphanumeric value by which an individual activity can be distinguished.

Activity identifier


A short descriptor for an activity.

Activity label


This documents all the activities necessary to complete a project.

Activity list


In this network diagram, arrows represent activities and nodes represent events or milestones.

Activity-On-Arrow (AOA)

AOA diagrams can only indicate finish-to-start relationships.


In a network diagram of this nature, nodes represent activities and arrows illustrate logical relationships between activities.

Activity-On-Node (AON)

AON diagrams can illustrate four relationship types: start-to-start, start-to-finish, finish-to-start, and finish-to-finish.


This represents the total cost incurred for work done in a given period of time.

Actual cost of work performed (ACWP)


The length of time taken to complete an activity.

Actual duration


The amount of labor performed to complete an activity. It is expressed in person-hours or similar units of work.

Actual effort


The sum of costs paid from a budget.

Actual expenditure


This measures the amount of work completed on a project. It is used to assess the comparison between project progress and project baselines and is usually stated as a percentage.

Actual progress


An approach to project management that rejects traditional, linear project management and instead accepts changing requirements and allows projects to be affected by external business environments.

Adaptive project framework (APF)

The ADF stresses flexibility in many aspects of project management and focuses on performing and evaluating project work in stages to allow room for replanning due to changing business goals, objectives, and requirements.


This refers to the set of formal requirements fulfilled to end a project. Among other things, it involves documenting the formal acceptance of deliverables and ensuring that all relevant information is sent to a project’s sponsor and stakeholders.

Administrative closure


This strategy uses demand forecasts to manage scheduling and planning for project activities between three and 18 months in advance, so that the necessary resources and personnel can be efficiently acquired or assigned.

Aggregate planning


The _________ family of methodologies is a superset of iterative development approaches aimed at meeting ever-changing customer requirements.


Agile development proceeds as a series of iterations, or sprints, with incremental improvements made in each sprint. Since agile projects do not have fixed scopes, agile methodologies are adaptive, and the iterative work is guided by user stories and customer involvement.


_________draws from concepts of agile software development.

Agile project management

Agile approaches focus on teamwork, collaboration, and stakeholder involvement, as well as the use of iterative development methods.


_____ originates from the Agile Manifesto, a set of principles that emphasizes meeting changing requirements through collaborative development and making ongoing improvements through iteration. It stresses the importance of being reactive to rapid changes in external environments.

Agile software development


The assigning of resources for scheduled activities in the most efficient way possible.



The evaluation of possible courses of action for project work in order to find the most suitable course of action.

Alternative analysis


This technique uses historical project data to prepare time and cost estimates. It is considered the most inaccurate estimation technique.

Analogous estimating


This technique computes total project time and cost estimates by preparing estimates for each project activity and adding them together. _________ is considered the most accurate estimation technique

Analytical estimating


The specific project category of which the project is a part. Application areas can be defined on the basis of project products’ characteristics or applications or by the projects’ customers or stakeholders.

Application area


Project work associated with components of a work breakdown structure and performed in proportion, with discrete effort. Since the amount of apportioned effort (which includes activities such as quality assurance) depends directly on the amount of discrete effort, it cannot be considered separately from discrete effort. It is one of three types of activities used to measure work performance as part of earned value management.

Apportioned effort