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Flashcards in Marxism Deck (26)
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1

What theory is Marxism?

Conflict theory - society is based on conflict

2

Who believed there was conflict between 2 groups of people? And who were they?

Marx
-conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat

3

Who are the bourgeoisie?

Middle class, minority group, have money, control society, have money

4

Who are the proletariat?

Working class, majority class, work in factories, 'low skilled' labour, powerless

5

What does the bourgeoisie own?

MEANS OF PRODUCTION
-things you need to make stuff: factories, tools / machinery, material resources

6

What does the proletariat own?

Own their LABOUR, they sell this to the bourgeoisie (RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION)

7

What is the relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat like? And why?

Exploitative
- B work the P for long hours, low pay in poor condition, minimal holiday

8

What did Marx believe the proletariat were going to do?

1. Become aware of their exploitation
2. Form class consciousness
3. Two routes =
•join/form a trade union, argue for better conditions, strike
•revolution - workers should rise up, overthrow the bourgeoisie, seize the MEANS OF PRODUCTION
Create a new class-less society based on shared ownership of the means of production =COMMUNISM

9

Who talks about marxists view of education? What did they believe?

Althusser
-state is controlled by the bourgeoisie, split into the RSA and the ISA

10

What is the RSA and who owns it?

Repressive state apparatus
-criminal justice system
-police
-army

11

What does the RSA have control to do?

Monopoly of violence
(Ability to use force)

12

What is the ISA and who is involved?

Ideological state apparatus
-media
-education
-religion

13

How does education in the ISA maintain Marxist views?

Education is used to maintain bourgeoisie power over the proletariat
-upholding the status quo (the situation as it is)

14

How is Althusser criticised?

He was a philosopher not a sociologist
-offered no evidence for the RSA/ISA theory

15

How can Karl Marx be criticised?

Capitalism has persisted, Marx's 'prophecy' of a proletarian uprising did not come to pass

16

How is Bowles and Gintis criticised?

They take a 'class first' approach, ignoring other factors/influences

17

What did the bourgeoisie controlling education do?

-reproduced inequality (replicate the status quo)
-proletariat to gain the necessary skills to labour whilst keeping them 'in their place'
(Recreate a constant supply of docile workers)

18

Who stated meritocracy was a myth? And why?

Bowles and Gintis
-social class is the key indicator of success

19

What is the correspondence principle?

-parallels between school and the work places- prepare students for labour
-certain traits were rewarded and others punished

20

Who did a study on the 'lads'

Paul Willis

21

Who were the lads?

12 Working class males, behaves poorly in school (break rules, be disruptive)
-ultimately they underachieved, leading to no qualifications, leading to low skilled, low paid, manual labour

22

How did the 'lads' view Education?

A waste of time, not for them, cannot leave the working class - called it a 'con'

23

How did the 'lads' view manual labour?

-viewed it in a positive way
-masculine
Where as... 'professional' roles and education was undesirable and 'feminine'

24

How did the lads view other pupils?

-verbally abused girls
-called middle class boys and hard working w/c boys ear'oles

25

So why did it not matter to try hard or not?

It didn't matter if they tried hard (because meritocracy was a myth) or if they don't (because they want a labour role/ job) and would end up in that role regardless of effort

26

How was Willis criticised?

Only 12 'lads' involved
-from the same class
-issues of validity? Reliability? Representativeness?