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Flashcards in Key Issues in Sociological Research Deck (21)
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1

What is primary data?

Data generated 'first hand' by the sociologist

2

What is secondary data?

Using 'second hand' data, which already exists

3

What is quantitative data?

Methods which generate numerical information

4

What is qualitative data?

Methods that generate rich, in depth data

5

What are the 3 issues that affect choose is data?

Practical issues
Ethical issues
Theoretical issues

6

What are the 5 things that cause practical issues?

-time and money
-requirements of funding bodies
-personal skills and characteristics
-subject matter
-research opportunities

7

What are practical issues?

Issues that have to be settled before research

8

What are ethical issues?

Moral principles - beliefs about what is right or wrong

9

What are the 6 issues that cause ethical issues?

-deception
-harm
-informed consent
-confidentiality and privacy
-covert research
-vulnerable groups

10

What are the 3 issues that cause Theoretical issues?

-validity
-reliability
-representatives

11

How does time and money cause and issue? (PET issue?)

Practical
-different methods require different amounts of time and money which can influence a sociologists choice of method

12

How does the requirements of funding bodies affect research choice? (PET issue?)

Practical
-research institutes, businesses and other organisations that provide the funding for research may require the results in a particular form

13

How does subject matter affect choice of method? (PET?)

Practical
-it may be much harder to study a particular groups or subject by one method than by another

14

How does research opportunities cause issues? (PET?)

Practical
-sometimes the opportunity to carry out research occurs unexpectedly and this means that it may not be possible to use structured methods such as questionnaires, which take longer to prepare

15

Who provides ethical guidelines?

British sociological association

16

How can informed consent pose an issue? (PET?)

Ethical
Research participants should be offered the right to refuse to be involved

17

How can deception be an issue? (PET?)

Ethical
-participants should be told about relevant aspects of the research before agreeing to take part

18

How does confidentiality and privacy cause issues with research? (PET?)

The identity of the participants should be kept secret in order to prevent possible negative effects on them
Personal information about participant should be kept confidential

19

How can harm to the research participants be an issue? (PET?)

Ethical
-researchers should be aware of possible effects on participants
•harm to employment
•police intervention
•social exclusion
•psychological damage
•physical damage

20

How do vulnerable groups cause issues? (PET?)

Ethical
-special care should be taken where participants are particularly vulnerable because of age, disability or physical/ mental health

21

How does covert research cause issues? (PET?)

Ethical
-the purpose and identity of research is hidden from participants in order to avoid the Hawthorne effect