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Flashcards in Social Class - External Factors Deck (33)
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What social class backgrounds achieve more?

Middle class children generally achieve more in education rather than working class children
-middle class parents can afford private education
-7% UK schools are private
-majority who are privately schooled go to university (90%)
-privately educated make up more than half of oxford entrants


What are the 3 external factors of social class differences?

Material deprivation
Cultural deprivation
Cultural capital


What do cultural deprivation theorists argue?

-most of us acquire out values and attitudes from primary socialisation
-this is the basic 'cultural equipment' of language, self discipline and reasoning
-the w/c do not socialise the children adequately = cultural deprivation
W/c homes lack books, educational toys and activities


Who distinguishes 2 types of speech codes? And what are they?

Bernstein (1975)
-restricted speech code (used by w/c)
-elaborated speech code (used by m/c)

Teachers, textbooks and tests use the elaborated code


What did Sugarman (1970) argue?

The working class subculture has 4 key features that act as a barrier of underachievement
-Immediate gratification
-present time orientation


What is fatalism?

A belief in fate- that 'whatever will be will be' and there is nothing that can be done to change your status


What is collectivism?

Valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual


What is immediate gratification?

Seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future


What is present time orientation?

Seeing the present as more important than the future and so not having long term goals


Who believes w/c children score lower on tests than m/c kids because w/c parents don't read to their children?

Douglas (1964)


Who claims language used in w/c homes are deficient?

Bereiter and Engelmann (1966)
He argues this is because they use gestures, single words and disjointed phrases and w/c kids struggle to explain, describe, enquiry or compare in lessons


Who argues w/c have a negative attitude towards education and why?

Feinstein (1998)
-m/c parents are more likely to provide their children with the necessary motivation, support and discipline


Who criticised cultural deprivation theory by claiming it is a myth?

Keddie (1973)
Argues w/c children are not culturally deprived however just culturally different


Why is there a risk of letting schools 'off the hook'? What could this lead to?

If we completely blame parents and home situations then it does not pressure schools into changing and improving even though it may not be their fault completely. This could lead to underachieving


What needs to be challenged in cultural deprivation and who argues this?

Troyna & Williams (1985)
A speech hierarchy exists and this needs to be challenged or else more w/c children will underachieve


Who is 'frozen out of the education system'? Who argues this and why is this an issue?

Working class parents
-blackstone & mortimer (1994)
-education system is not designed to fit their needs meaning w/c parents do not have the relevant information about education and therefore frozen out of the system


What is material deprivation?

Refers to poverty and a lack of material necessities


What are the 4 factors involved in material deprivation?

-poor housing
-poor diet and health
-the hidden costs of education
-fear of debt


What is the percentage of children who claim FMS achieve 5 A*-C GCSE's?



What is the percentage of failing schools in deprived areas?

Nearly 90%


Name 2 things that children are more likely to receive when living in poorer areas



How can material deprivation be criticised and contradicted?

Many w/c children do academically succeed regardless of coming from poorer backgrounds


How do schools reduce the impacts of material deprivation and therefore means MD isn't as big a problem?

Many schools now offer facilities such as computers outside of normal school times so that children (especially w/c) can catch up with work so they don't fall behind academically


What is the word that describes the extreme arguments about MD and why is it?

-to say that poverty causes poor educational performance is too deterministic as some students from poor backgrounds do academically succeed. Therefore instead of saying there is a relationship between the 2 variables, say that poverty disadvantages w/c students and makes it harder to succeed


What government initiatives help reduce material deprivation and therefore means MD is criticised?

EMA - sought to compensate for material deprivation as well as
-SureSmart programmes to provide pre-schools and nursery places in poorer districts, therefore MD may not occur or it gives them a head start


Who identifies 3 types of capital and what are they?

Bourdieu (1984)
-economic capital
-educational capital
-cultural capital


Who does bourdieu claim has more capital?

Middle class


How does bourdieu define cultural capital?

Refers to the knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle class


Similarly to Bernstein, how does bourdieu argue socialisation is a key factor that affects cultural capital?

Middle class children acquire the ability to grasp, analyse and express abstract ideas- more likely to develop intellectual interests and an understanding of what the education system requires for success


How does cultural capital affect m/c and w/c?

M/C- give an advantage in schools, where such abilities and interests are highly valued and rewarded with qualifications- this is because the education system is not neutral, but favours and transmits the dominant m/c culture

W/C- education devalues their culture as 'rough' and inferior- this leads to exam failure. Many w/c pupils 'get the message' that education is not for them and reaping by truanting, early leaving or not trying