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Flashcards in Social Class - Internal Factors Deck (31)
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What are the 5 main factors internally affecting social class differences in education?

-self fulfilling prophecy
-pupil subculture
-pupils class identities and the school


What does labelling refer to?

To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition to them


Why do teachers label?

Teachers often label students based on stereotyped assumptions


Who interviewed 60 Chicago high school teachers? What did they find?

Howard Becker (1971)
-he found they they judged pupils against the image of the 'ideal pupil'
^-work, conduct and appearance informed their judgement
-he found that m/c pupils were closest to the 'ideal'
-w/c students were further away from the 'ideal'- regarded as badly behaved


Who did a study of American school counsellors/career advisers?
What did they find?

Aaron Cicourel & John Kitsuse (1963)
-found that labelling can disadvantage w/c students
-counsellors claimed to assess students suitability to enter higher education on the basis of ability
-in reality, they judged their suitability mainly in the grounds of social class/race


Who did a study on American kindergarten?
What did they find?

Ray Rist (1970)
-teachers used information on students home & backgrounds to separate them into different tables
-e.g. "Tigers" were fast learners, m/c, neat and tidy, received most encouragement
"Cardinals" and "clowns" : w/c, given lower level work, read as a group, given less opportunities to show their ability


Who did a study on 'Mapledene' a British primary school?
What did they find?

Rachel Sharp & Tony Green (1975)
-children choose their own activities and develop at their own pace
-m/c children appeared 'ready to learn' quicker and received more attention
-w/c children engaged in 'compensatory play time' until they were 'ready' and received less reading time and attention


How did marxists criticise labelling theory? 2 Criticisms

-Labelling theory ignores the wider structure of power within which which labelling takes place.
Labelling theory tends to blame teachers for labelling pupils but fails to explain why they do

-labels are merely the result of teachers individual prejudices, but stem from the fact that teachers work in a system that reproduces class divisions


Why is labelling theory argued to be deterministic? (Criticism)

It assumes that pupils who are labelled have no choice but to fulfil the prophecy and will inevitably fail - studies show this is not always the case (Mary Fuller)


Define the self fulfilling prophecy

A prediction that comes true simply by the virtue of it having been made


What are the 3 steps of the self fulfilling prophecy

Step 1 - the teachers labels a pupil
Step 2 - the teacher treats the pupil accordingly
Step 3 - the pupil internalises the label


Define streaming

Separating children into different groups based on ability


Who quotes 'a way of separating sheep from goats and educating them differently' to explain the effectiveness of streaming?

Colin Lacey (1970)


What did JWB Douglas in 1964 find?

He found that IQ of those in the bottom streams fell over time, whilst in the top streams it increased
-those in lower streams denied the access to the same curriculum


Define pupil subcultures

A group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour patterns


What are the 2 ways in which pupil subcultures develop? Define them

-the process by which a teach categories pupils -'low status = less able' 'high status = more able'

-a process by which students respond to streaming, moving towards a 'pole' or extreme


What are the 2 main pupil subcultures?



Who generally fits into the pro school subculture?

Obedient, hard working, organised
Gain status through educational success
Teachers view them as a cause of academic success
Higher streams


Who generally fits into the anti school subculture?

Disruptive, messy, 'I don't care attitude
Gain status through peer groups
Teachers view them as a lost cause with no hope
Lower streams


How can pupil subculture theorists be criticised?

They presume that every pupil labelled will automatically be drawn to that subculture, however it can be seen with many pupils they attempt to break out of the label
E.G. Students labelled as useless (wc) are placed in low streams, even though most pupils will go to an anti school subculture, other will be determined to succeed to prove the education system wrong


Who wanted to abolish streaming?

Stephan ball(1981)
-looked at a comprehensive school, mixed ability groups instead
-pupil polarisation disappeared
-teacher labelling persisted, leading to a SFP
-trend in the U.K. Has been towards more streaming and more variety of school types


What is meant by pupils class identities and the class?

How identities are formed in schools and ways in which they are formed


Define habitus

Refers to the 'dispositions' or learned, taken for granted ways of thinking, being and acting that are shared by a particular social class


Who's habitus is seen as superior and why is this a problem for the other group of people?

M/C habitus is seen as superior
-means that in education, the w/c's tastes, attitudes and beliefs are seen as inferior and disregarded leading to underachievement


What is symbolic capital? Who has this?

- as their habitus is used in education, it gives them status, worth and value because their beliefs, and values are seen as correct


What is symbolic violence?
Who has this?

The school devalues the w/c's habitus so that their beliefs are seen as inferior and deemed to be tasteless and worthless


What did Archer find when looking at symbolic capital and violence?

W/c pupils felt that in order to be educationally successful, they would have to change how they talked and presented themselves. And therefore meant a process of 'losing yourself'


When looking at the variety of pupil responses, who argues other than forming pro or anti school subcultures, there are 4 possible responses to labelling and streaming?

Peter Woods (1979)
-INGRATIATION - being the 'teachers pet'
-RITUALISM - going through the motions and staying out of trouble
-RETREATISM - daydreaming and mucking around
-REBELLION- outright rejection of everything the school stands for


Who identified that pupils do not also commit to the 4 types of pupil responses?

John Furlong (1984)
Many pupils move around the 4 responses, based on the teachers and subjects


Briefly explain what is meant by 'Nike' identities

Symbolic violence led pupils to seek alternative ways of creating self worth, status and value
-they did so by constructing meaningful class identities for themselves by heavily investing in 'styles' especially through the brand Nike