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Flashcards in Gender - Girls Achievement Deck (31)
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Which sex generally perform better academically?



What is the percentage difference of girls achieving more/less than boys in GCSE's (5A*-C) ?

Girls 10% more likely


What are the 4 external factors affecting girls achievement?

-impact of feminism
-changes in the family
-changes in women's employment
-girls changing ambitions


What is feminism?

Feminism is a movement that strives for equal rights for women in all areas of life
Challenges traditional stereotypes regarding gender roles


Who did a study of seeing how the impact of feminism affects women's views? What was it?

McRobbie (1994)
- a study involving a comparison of girls magazines from the 1970s VS. The 1990s - very different expectations of women


How have families changed?

Since the 1970s, there has been several major changes to the family
-increase in divorce rate, cohabitation, lone parent families (headed by females)
-decrease in first marriages


How does changes to the family affect girls view of education?

-single mum acts as a role model for young girls
-inspiration and motivation to work hard in education


What 2 policies have been introduced to change women's employment?

-equal pay act (1970)
-sex discrimination act (1975)


How has the amount of women in employment changed?

Proportion of women in employment up from 47%(1959) to 70%(2007)


How has the pay gap changed since the equal pay act was introduced?

Pay gap since 1970 between men and women has fallen from 30% to 17%


What does changes in women's employment affect girls achievement?

Women are breaking through the 'glass ceiling' (getting high, too paid jobs) which provides a motive for working hard in school


Who did a study on girls changing ambitions? What was this study? Results?

Sue Sharpe (1994)
-interviewed girls between 1970s and 1990s
-major shift in how girls view their future
-1970s: girls had lower aspirations- education was unfeminine, priorities were 'love, marriage, husband, children, jobs, careers'


What are the 6 internal factors affecting girls achievement?

-equal opportunities policies
-positive role models in school
-GCSE and coursework
-teacher attention
-challenging stereotypes in the curriculum
-selection and league tables


How did feminists have an input in the equal opportunities policies?

Feminists ideas were now widely spread in education; basic belief in gender equality (that boys and girls can achieve equally)
-it was now a social norm


What was one of the programmes set up to ensure equal opportunities?

GIST (girls into science and technology)


How did the curriculum help equal opportunities?

National curriculum changed to ensure all students had to study the same subjects (science = compulsory)


What did these policies ensure for equal opportunities?



How do role models affect the internal factors in educational achievement?

-vastly more female teachers and head teachers than in the past, especially in primary schools
-the presence of more female teachers 'feminises' the learning environment, encouraging girls to see it as part of their 'gender' domain
-they might therefore perceive educational success as a desirable female characteristic


Who found that girls GCSE results increased sharply when course work was introduced?

Gorad (1995)


What did Mitos and Browne in 1998 find about GCSE and coursework?

Girls do better than boys in coursework as they are better organised and mature earlier than boys


How did stereotypes in learning material affect girls achievement? Positively or negatively?

Negatively affected them.
-studies of reading schemes and textbooks have shown that in the past, were under presented or presented as subordinate to others


How has the issue of stereotypes in learning material been reduced?

Since the 1980s, many sexist images have been removed and replaced with more positive images - boosting girls perception and aspirations


Who found that teachers spend more time interacting with boys than girls? (Teacher attention)

Spender (1983)


What did French and French in 1993 find out about teachers attention?

-they found that similar amounts of attention was spent on both genders for academic reasons
-boys get more overall attention because of misbehaving and requiring discipline


What did Francis in 2001 find out about teachers attention?

Found that the teachers had lower expectations of boys, disciplined then more harshly


What did Swann in 1998 find out about teachers attention?

Found boys dominate class discussions, girls prefer more group work, this finds favour with the teacher


Do girls benefit or become disadvantaged from selection and league tables? Why is this?

Girls benefit
-incentive for schools to try and recruit more able students to secure good league table position
-girls are more successful than boys, and therefore more attractive to schools


Do boys benefit or become disadvantaged from selection and league tables? Why is this?

Boys disadvantage from this
-Boys are lower achieving and more badly behaved
-seen as 'liability students' who will give the school a bad image and produce poor results


What are the 2 views of girls achievement?

Liberal feminists
Radical feminists


Explain how liberal feminists view girls achievement

-applaud the progress in improving girls achievement so far
- however, believe further progress will be made by:
•continuing to develop equal opportunities
•encouraging positive role models for girls
•overcoming sexist attitudes/ stereotypes
-believe education is a meritocracy