Flashcards in Gender - Boys Achievement Deck (28)
What are 4 internal factors influencing boys achievement?
-boys and literacy
-the feminisation of education
-shortage of male primary teachers
Why might boys lack literacy skills?
-parents spend less time reading with sons
-of the reading undertaken by parents, most is done by the mother, as a result, reading seems 'feminine'
Why might leisure pursuits for both boys and girls result in lack of language?
Boys- football and computer games do not help develop language
Girls- involves communication and relationship building which do help develop language skills
Since the 1980s what masculine jobs have seen a decline?
Heavy manufacturing, mining, steel working etc...
Who identities a 'crisis of masculinity'
Eirene Mitsos & Ken Browne (1998)
-decline in these sectors has lead to a 'crisis of masculinity'
-without a prospect of getting a job, many w/c boys lose motivation to get qualifications, low self esteem
Who claims that the feminisation of education leads to boys underachieving?
-schools do not nurture 'masculine' traits such as competitiveness and leadership
-instead they celebrate traits more closely associated with girls, such as attentiveness in class and methodical writing
-argument that coursework should be replaced with a single exam
"We have challenged the 1950s patriarchy... but we threw the boys out with the bathwater"
Give 2 statistics about the shortage of primary school teachers
-only 16% of primary school teachers are male
-39% of 8-11 year old boys have no lessons with male teachers despite many saying they concentrated better and worked harder with male teachers
Who claimed that boys who appear to work hard were labelled as sissies, harassed, or subjected to homophobic abuse?
What did Francis in 2001 claim? (Laddish subcultures)
Boys were more concerned than girls about being labelled swots/nerds/ geeks etc
-in w/c culture, masculinity is equated with 'tough' manual work
-"real boys don't work" - and if they do, they get bullied
-laddishness spreading and growing as boys try to construct themselves as 'non-feminine'
How does subject choice and gender identity affect achievement?
A fairly traditional pattern of 'boys subjects' and 'girls subjects' persist, for example, boys tend to chose maths and physics and girls tend to chose modern languages
-schooling also reinforces gender identity, both through the curriculum as well as through interactions between teachers and students
The introduction of what restricted what?
The introduction of the national curriculum (1988) restricted pupil choice
What are the 4 explanations of gender differences in subject choice?
-gendered career opportunities
-gendered subject images
What did Ann Oakly in 1973 argue? (Early socialisation)
Sex refers to physical differences between males and females, gender refers to learned cultural differences
What is gender role socialisation? Give examples
The process of learning behaviour expected of males and females in society
-boys and girls given:
•different clothes to wear
•different toys to play with
-boys rewarded for being active and girls for being passive by parents
What is a gender domain?
Tasks and activities which boys and girls see as their 'territory' and therefore relevant to them
Who did a study on gender domains? What did they find?
Patricia Murphy (1991)
gave children a task to design boats and vehicles and to write an estate agents advert for a house
-boys designed powerboats and weaponry with little living accommodations
-girls designed cruise ships with attention given to social and domestic factors
-boys designed sports cards and army vehicles, girls designed family cars
Estate agent adverts: boys focused on 'man space' like garages
Girls focused on the 'womens sphere' of the kitchen and décor
This shows that boys and girls pay attention to different details when tackling the same task, which may help to explain why they choose different subjects
What is a gendered subject image? Give 2 examples of subjects and their image
The gender image that the subject 'gives off'
-science: tends to be taught by men, boys monopolise the apparatus in the science labs
-computing: involves working with machines which are seen to 'masculine', less opportunities for group work (which women tend to favour)
How can peer pressure affect subject choice?
-boys tend to opt out of dance and music of fear of attracting a negative response from peers
-sports are often considered more masculine, girls opt to take up sport have to deal with an image which contradicts the traditional female stereotypes
-boys consider girls 'butch' or 'lesbian' if they are more interested in sport than themselves
How does gender career opportunities affect gender differences in subject choices?
-jobs tend to be 'sex typed'
-women's job often involve work similar to that performed by housewifes (childcare)
-women's roles usually fall within the domains of clerical, secretarial, personal service a
•only 1/6 of males work in these industries
-sex typing affects perception of what jobs are possible and acceptable, moulding subject choices
How do pupils experiences in school reinforce their gender and sexual identities?
-male peer groups
-teachers and discipline
-the male gaze
A rich vocabulary of abuse is one way in which gender identities are reinforced
Why might certain pupils experience verbal abuse?
-boys use name calling to put down girls if they act or dress in certain ways 'butch'
-boys call girls 'slags' or 'sluts' if they appear to be sexually available and 'frigid' if they don't
-they use negative labels such as 'gay', 'queer', and 'faggot' are ways in which students police each other's sexuality
-some boys are labelled as gay simply for talking to girls or being friendly to female teachers
What do male peer groups use to reinforce their gender identity?
-use verbal abuse, especially in anti-school subcultures
How does the role of class coincide with the male peer group?
-'macho' w/c lads criticise or abuse w/c boys who work hard and aspire to m/c careers (dickhead achievers)
-m/c boys often try to appear to be effortlessly achieving working on the quiet
What is the male gaze?
A visual aspect to how pupils control each other's identities
How do boys use the male gaze?
-male pupils and teachers look girls up and down, seeing them as sexual objects, making judgements about their appearance
-a form of surveillance, reinforcing hetero-masculinity and devaluing femininity
- boys tell and retell stories of sexual conquests, those who don't are labelled as gay
Who did a study on teachers and discipline? Who was it?
Chris Haywood & Mairtin Mac an Ghaill (1996)
-male teachers tell off boys for 'acting like girls' and tease them when they score lower than girls in tests
-teachers tend to ignore boys verbal abuse of girls and tell girls off for 'attracting it'
-male teachers are often 'protective' of female staff, 'rescuing' them from disruptive classes
How are double standards in sexual morality used?
-boys boast about sexual exploits, but call a girl a slag of slut if she does not have a steady boyfriend or dresses/ acts in a certain way