Flashcards in Ethnicity - External Factors Deck (19)
What is an ethnic group?
Who defines this?
People who share common history, customs and identity, as well as, in most cases, language and religion, and who see themselves as a distinct unit
Lawson & Garrod (2000)
What are sociologists interested in when looking at ethnicity?
Interested in the reasons for these differences, and break down the differences into external and internal factors
What are the 3 external factors influencing ethnicity?
-racism in wider society
What are 4 causes of underachievement in minority groups that cultural deprivation theorists identify?
-lack of intellectual and linguistic skills
-lack of motivation
-dysfunctional family structure
-blacks experience of slavery
Why do cultural deprivation theorists believe a lack of linguistic and intellectual skills are a factor of underachievement?
-lack of stimulating and enriching experiences in BAME families
-use of restricted code at home by BAME families
Why do cultural deprivation theorists believe a lack of motivation is a factor of underachievement?
-most children are socialised into the mainstream culture which promotes competitiveness and deferred gratification
-by contrast, BAME children often display a fatalistic 'live for today' attitude that does not value education
Why do cultural deprivation theorists believe a dysfunctional family structure is a factor of underachievement?
-many black families are lone parents/single mother families which struggle financially
-lack of strong male role models (neoliberal/new right)
-"59% of black Caribbean children live in lone parents households, compared with 22% of white children"
-cycle of dysfunction
Why do cultural deprivation theorists believe that the blacks experience of slavery are a factor of underachievement?
Some cultural deprivation theorists cite that blacks experience of slavery as being culturally devastating, leading to low self esteem amongst the black community- loss of language, religion, and family system
Explain how Asian families live & how they view education
-more positive attitude to education
-higher aspirations and supportive parents
-different experience of colonialism: perhaps not as devastating? (Religion, language, family system intact)
-respectful attitudes to parents expected of children, helps in the school environment
-however- stress and anxiety caused by high expectations: controlling attitude towards girls
Explain how white working class culture sees education compared to other minority groups
Explain research done showing statistics about GCSE results
-BAME children often aspire to attend university where as white w/c children not so much
-BAME children often see education as a 'way up' in society and out of poverty
-white w/c street culture amongst children is often quite brutal, which often 'spills over' in the schools - causing disruption
-research by the CSJ showed that 26% of poor white British boys obtained 5 A*-C GCSEs including maths and English -compared to 40% of black boys and 63% of the country as a whole - independent- 2013
When criticising cultural deprivation when looking at ethnicity, how does the theory fail to recognise positive effects of ethnicity on achievement?
-in black single mother families, the mum is often a strong, independent role model for their daughters (black girls outperform black boys)
How can cultural deprivation be criticised using 2 internal factors?
-The ethnocentric curriculum is biased and favours white culture, which also leads to underachievement
-underestimation of teacher racism, which may prevent black student achievement rather than low self esteem and 'weak culture'
What can cultural deprivation theory be criticised by doing?
-not culturally deprived, simply culturally different
Define material deprivation
Lack of material necessities seen as normal for everyday life
MD theorists see educational failure as a result of what?
-result of substandard housing and poor income
•material inequality between ethic groups
•for example: Indians and whites generally have a higher social class position than Bangladeshis and Pakistanis - this is reflected in educational success
-there may therefore be a danger, we over estimate the effect of CD and under estimate the role of MD
Give an example that proves that 'social class factors do not always override the influence of ethnicity'
-m/c black pupils so comparatively poorly compared to m/c pupils from other ethnic groups
What does racial discrimination lead to?
Leads to social exclusion (in housing for example, minorities are often forced into substandard housing)
How does racism affect employment?
What does this help explain?
Companies are more likely to employ white candidates over others
-this helps explain why minorities are more likely to face low pay and unemployment, affecting their children's educational achievement