Language and Communication Pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Language and Communication Pt. 2 Deck (18)
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Necessary Conditions.

Something that must be true of the object in order for it to belong to the category (all cats are mammals).


Sufficient Conditions.

Something that, if true to tthe objecct, proves that it belongs to the category (since it is a Tabby, it is a cat).



Refers to a mental representation that groups or categproes shared features of related objects, events, or other stimuli.


Concepts are fundamental for ___ and ___.

Thinking and making sense of the world.



When our brain stops working in some way, we learn what that part of the brain does for us.


Category Specific Deficit.

An inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category undisturbed.


What does the case of Adam suggest?

Our brains are prewired to organize perceptual and sensory inputs into broad-based categories.


Family Resemblance Theory.

Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members, but may not be possessed by every member. Series of overlapping similarities.


Prototype Theory.

Category members that have many features in common with other members are reated as more typical of the category than members that share few common features. When in the category furniture, chair is mentioend more often than stool. Holistic processes and image processes.


Exemplar Theory.

A theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgements by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category. Analysis and decision making.


Rational Choice Theory.

The classical view that we make decisions by determing how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and multiplying the two.


Availability Bias.

Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occured more often. Direct relation between memory strength and frequency of occurance.



A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached.



A well defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem.


The Conjunction Fallacy.

When people think that two events are more likely to occur than either individual event. In many cases, the two things happen more readily separately.


Representativeness Heuristic and Framing Effects

A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event.


Framing Effects.

When people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased or framed (ex. 30% failure or 70% success).


Sunk-Cast Fallacy

A framing effect in which people make decisions based on what they hace previously invested in the situation (ex. moving and attending school).