Flashcards in Chapter 2 Methods Deck (61)
The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation.
A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence.
A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon.
A falsafiable prediction made by a theory.
Rule of Parsimony for Theory
Find the simplest theory.
Evidence never ___ theory.
A set of rules and techniques for observation.
A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms.
Two kinds of methods that help overcome the difficulty in studying humans:
Observataion, which determines what they do, and explanation, which determines why they do it.
Good measures have three things:
Validity, reliability, and power.
A device that can detect the condition to which an operationl definition refers.
Electromyograph, a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin.
The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related.
The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition.
Thse aspects of an observation; setting that cause people to bahave as they think they should.
A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.
Misleading explanations that are meant to keep people from discerning the true purpose of of an observation.
Pointless measures that are designed to mislead you about the true purpose of the observation.
Expectations can influence ___ and ___.
An observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed.
A graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made.
A mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle.
Most frequently occuring measurement.
Average of measurements.
Brief summary statements that capture essential information about frequency distribution.
Two types of descriptive statistics:
Central tendency and variability.