Chapter 2 Methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Methods Deck (61)
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1

Empiricism

The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation.

2

Scientific Method

A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence.

3

Theory

A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon.

4

Hypothesis.

A falsafiable prediction made by a theory.

5

Rule of Parsimony for Theory

Find the simplest theory.

6

William Ockham

K.I.S.S.

7

Evidence never ___ theory.

Proves.

8

Empirical Method

A set of rules and techniques for observation.

9

Operational Definition

A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms.

10

Two kinds of methods that help overcome the difficulty in studying humans:

Observataion, which determines what they do, and explanation, which determines why they do it.

11

Good measures have three things:

Validity, reliability, and power.

12

Measure

A device that can detect the condition to which an operationl definition refers.

13

EMG

Electromyograph, a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin.

14

Validity

The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related.

15

Reliability

The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing.

16

Power

The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition.

17

Demand Characteristics

Thse aspects of an observation; setting that cause people to bahave as they think they should.

18

Naturalistic Observation

A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.

19

Cover Stories

Misleading explanations that are meant to keep people from discerning the true purpose of of an observation.

20

Filler Items

Pointless measures that are designed to mislead you about the true purpose of the observation.

21

Expectations can influence ___ and ___.

Observations, reality.

22

Double Blind

An observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed.

23

Frequency Distribution

A graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made.

24

Normal Distribution

A mathematically defined frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle.

25

Mode

Most frequently occuring measurement.

26

Mean

Average of measurements.

27

Median

Middle memasurement.

28

Descriptive Statistics

Brief summary statements that capture essential information about frequency distribution.

29

Two types of descriptive statistics:

Central tendency and variability.

30

When a graph is positively skewed, the mean, median, and mode are shifted...

Left.