Flashcards in Chapter Extra- Sullivan: Interpersonal Theory Deck (56)
This theory emphasizes the importance of various developmental stages-infancy, childhood, the juvenile era, preadolescence, early adolescence, late adolescence, and adulthood. Healthy human development rests on a persons ability to establish intimacy with another person, but unfortunately, anxiety can interfere with satisfying interpersonal relations at any age.
Sullivans interpersonal theory
Sullivan was a an immature and isolated a child, but nevertheless formed one close interpersonal relationship with a boy that was _____ years older than himself. Many thought he was a homosexual.
Sullivan gained a reputation working at Saint Elizabeth's Hospital while working with these type of patients:
Sullivan saw personality as an _____ system
According to Sullivan, energy can exist either as _______, or potentiality for action, or as actions themselves also known as _____ ________.
Tension, energy transformations
These transform tensions into either covert or overt behaviors and are aimed at satisfying needs and reducing anxiety
This is a potentiality for action that may or may not be experienced in awareness
Sullivan recognized two types of tensions:
Needs and anxiety. Needs usually resulting productive actions, whereas anxiety leads to nonproductive or disintegrative behaviors
According to Sullivan, needs can relate to either the general well-being of a person or to specific zones, such as the _____ or ______
Mouth or genitals
According to Sullivan, general needs can be either _______, such as food or oxygen (zonal), or they can be _________, such as tenderness and intimacy.
Unlike some needs, tenderness requires actions from at least ___ people
Unlike needs which are conjunctive and call for specific actions to reduce them, _____ is disjunctive and calls for no consistent action for itself. It is the chief disruptive force in interpersonal relations
All infants learn to be anxious through the ______ relationship that they have with their mothering one
A complete absence of anxiety and other tensions is called
Energy transformations become organized as typical behavior patterns that characterize a person throughout a lifetime, Sullivan called these behavior patterns
Dynamisms A term that means about the same as traits or habit patterns
According to Sullivan, dynamism's are two major classes:
They may relate to specific zones of the body or to tensions
The disjunctive dynamism of evil and hatred, characterized by the feeling of living among one's enemies.
Malevolence. Children who become malevolent have much difficulty giving and receiving tenderness or being intimate with other people
According to Sullivan, this is a conjunctive dynamism marked by a close personal relationship between two people of equal status
Intimacy. Facilitates into personal development while decreasing both anxiety and loneliness
According to Sullivan, this dynamism is an isolating dynamism, it is a self centered need that can be satisfied in the absence of an intimate interpersonal relationship. Based solely on sexual gratification and requires no other person for its satisfaction
According to Sullivan, this is the most inclusive of all dynamism and is that pattern of behaviors that protects us against anxiety and maintains our interpersonal security. It is a conjunctive dynamism, but because it's primary job is to protect the self from anxiety, it tends to stifle personality change
According to Sullivan, experiences that are inconsistent with our self-system threaten our security and necessitate our use of ______ ______, which consist of behaviors designed to reduce interpersonal tensions
Two important security operations according to Sullivan are:
Dissociation and selective in attention
According to Sullivan, this security operation includes those impulses, desires, and needs that a person refuses to allow into awareness
According to Sullivan, this security operation is a refusal to see those things that we do not wish to see. The control of focal awareness.
According to Sullivan, people acquire certain images of self and others throughout the developmental stages, and he referred to the subjective perceptions as:
The bad mother personification grows out of infants' experiences with the nipple that does not satisfy their ______ needs
Later, according to Sullivan, infants acquire a ____-______personification as they become mature enough to recognize the tender and cooperative behavior of their mothering one
According to Sullivan, during infancy children acquire three "me"personifications:
The bad-me, the good-me, the non-me
According to Sullivan, this me personification grows from experiences of punishment and disapproval