Chapter 18- Rotter And Mischel: Cognitive Social Learning Theory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18- Rotter And Mischel: Cognitive Social Learning Theory Deck (54)
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1

Rotter takes this type of approach which believes that neither the environment itself nor the individual is completely responsible for behavior. Instead, he holds that people's cognitions, past histories, and expectations of the future are keys to predicting behavior

Interactionist

2

Michelle's contributions to personality theory have evolved from research on this which is a reference to the observation that some people some of the time will prefer a more value delayed rewards over lesser valued immediate ones

Delay of gratification

3

Rodders interactionist social learning theory is based on five basic hypotheses:
1) humans _____ with their meaningful environments- human behavior stems from the interaction of environmental and personal factors
2) human personality is ______- which suggests it can be changed or modified as long as people are capable of learning
3) personality has a _____ _____ - suggesting that personality has some basic stability
4) motivation is ____ directed- peoples expectations that their behaviors are advancing them toward goals
5) people are capable of _______ events-they are capable of changing their environments and their personalities

Interact, learned, basic unity, goal directed, anticipating events

4

According to Rotter, this defines reinforcement as any action, condition, or event which affects the individuals movement toward a goal

The empirical Law of effect

5

Rotter suggested for variables that must be analyzed in order to make accurate predictions in any specific situation:

Behavioral potential, expectancy, reinforcement value, and the psychological situation

6

According to Rotter, this is the possibility that a particular response will occur at a given time and place in relation to its likely reinforcement

Behavior potential

7

According to rotter, this refers to a person's expectation that some specific reinforcement or set of reinforcements will occur in a given situation. A person's confidence that a particular reinforcement will follow a specific behavior in a specific situation. Can be either general or specific, and the overall likelihood of success is a function of both generalized and specific expectancies

Expectancy

8

These type of expectancies according to Rotter are learned through previous experiences with a particular response or similar responses and are based on the belief that certain behaviors will be followed by positive reinforcement

Generalized expectancies

9

According to Rotter, this is the preference a person attaches to any reinforcement when the probabilities for the occurrence of a number of different reinforcements are all equal

Reinforcement value

10

According to Rotter, this reinforcement is the individuals perception of an event

Internal reinforcement

11

According to Rotter, this type of reinforcement refers to events, conditions, or actions on which one's society or culture places a value

External reinforcement

12

According to Rotter, these suggest that the value of an event is a function of one's expectation that a particular reinforcement will lead to future reinforcements

Reinforcement-reinforcement sequences

13

According to Rotter, this is the fourth variable in the prediction formula and is defined as that part of the external and internal world to which a person is responding. Behavior is a function of the interaction of people with their meaningful environment

The psychological situation

14

According to Rotter, in any specific situation, behavior can be predicted by this, which states that the potential for a behavior to occur in a particular situation in relation to a given reinforcement is a function of peoples expectancy that their behavior will be followed by that reinforcement in that situation

The basic prediction formula.

The formula is read: the potential for behavior X to occur in situation 1 in relation to reinforcement a is a function of the expectancy that behavior X will be followed by reinforcement a in situation 1 and the value of reinforcement a in situation 1

15

According to Rotter, to make more general predictions of behavior, one must know people's ______ _______, or their expectations based on similar past experiences that a given behavior will be reinforced. They include people's needs, that is, behaviors that move them toward a goal

Generalized expectancies

16

Rotter defined these as any behavior or set of behaviors that people see as moving them in the direction of a goal. They are not states of deprivation or arousal but indicators of the direction of behavior

Needs

17

Rotter listed six broad categories of ____, with each need being related to behaviors that lead to the same or similar reinforcements

Needs

18

According to Rotter, this category of needs refers to the need to excel, to achieve, and to have others recognize one's worth

Recognition-status

19

According to Rotter, this category of needs is the need to control the behavior of others, to be in charge, or to gain power over others

Dominance

20

According to Rotter, this category of needs is the need to be free from the domination of others

Independence

21

According to Rotter, this category of needs is the need to have others take care of us and to protect us from harm

Protection-dependence

22

According to Rotter, this category of needs are needs to be warmly accepted by others and to be held in friendly regard

Love and affection

23

According to Rotter, this category of needs includes those behaviors aimed at securing food, good health, and physical security

Physical comfort

24

According to Rotter, this need component is the possible occurrences of a set of functionally related behaviors directed toward the satisfaction of similar goals. It is analogous to behavior potential

Need potential

25

According to Rotter, this need component is a persons overall expectation of being reinforced for performing those behaviors that are directed toward satisfying some general need. It is analogous to expectancy

Freedom of movement.

26

According to Rotter, this need component is the extent to which people prefer one set of reinforcements to another. It is analogous to reinforcement value

Need value

27

According to Rotter, this formula states that the need potential is a function of freedom of movement and need value

The general prediction formula

28

Rotter's two most famous scales for measuring generalized expectancies are:

The internal-external control scale and the interpersonal trust scale

29

This scale for measuring generalized expectancies created by Rotter attempts to measure the degree to which people perceive a causal relationship between their own efforts and environmental consequences

The internal-external control scale

30

This scale for measuring generalized expectancies created by Rotter measures the extent to which a person expects the word or promise of another person to be true

The interpersonal trust scale