Chapter 9- Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic Theory Flashcards Preview

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The series of Maslow, Gordon Allport, Carl Rogers, Rollo May and others are sometimes thought of as the _____ _____. The first force was psychoanalysis, the second was behaviorism.

Third force


Maslow married his first:



Maslow's theory rests on five basic assumptions about motivation:

1) it is a holistic approach to motivation, the whole person, not any single part or function, is motivated
2) motivation is complex, and may be unconscious
3) people are continually motivated by one need or another
4) people in different cultures are motivated by the same basic needs
5) needs can be arranged in a hierarchy


This concept assumes that lower level needs must be satisfied or at least relatively satisfied before higher-level needs become motivators

Hierarchy of needs


The five needs composing Maslow's hierarchy of needs have a striving or motivational character, they are called:

Conative needs


Lower level needs, according to Maslow, have _______ over higher level needs; that is, they must be satisfied or mostly satisfied before higher level needs become activated.



What are the five needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization.


These are the most basic needs of any person and include food, water, oxygen, maintenance of body temperature, and so on



In what two ways to physiological needs differ from

1) they can be completely satisfied or even overly satisfied
2) they are reccurring


These needs include physical security, stability, dependency, protection, and freedom from danger, and which results in basic anxiety if not satisfied

Safety needs


These needs include the desire for friendship, the wish for a mate and children, the need to belong to a family, a club, neighborhood, or a nation.

Love and belongingness needs


These needs include self-respect, confidence, competence, and the knowledge that others hold them in high esteem

Esteem needs


Maslow identify two levels of esteem needs:

Reputation-the perception of the prestige, recognition, or fame a person has achieved in the eyes of others

Self-esteem-based on more than reputation, it reflects a desire for strength, for achievement, for adequacy, for mastery and competence, for confidence in the face of the world, and for independence and freedom. Based on real competence and not on others opinions


These needs include self-fulfillment, the realization of all one's potential, and a desire to become creative in the full sense of the world

Self-actualization needs. Satisfied only by the psychologically healthiest people


In addition to the five conative needs, low identified three other categories of needs:

Aesthetic, cognitive, and neurotic


This type of need is not universal and is a desire for beauty and order

Aesthetic needs. When these needs are not met people become sick


These needs include the desire to know, to understand, and to be curious. Knowledge is a prerequisite for each of the five conative needs

Cognitive needs. People who are denied knowledge and kept in ignorance become sick, paranoid, and depressed


These needs include a desire to dominate, to inflict pain, or to subject oneself to the will of another person. These needs always lead to stagnation and pathology whether or not they are satisfied. They are nonproductive.

Neurotic needs


Insert in rare cases, the order of needs might be ______. For example, a starving mother may be motivated by love needs to give up food in order to feed her starving children.

Reversed. However, if he understand the unconscious motivation behind many apparent reversals, we might see that they are not genuine reversals at all.


Maslow believed that some behaviors are not caused by needs but by other factors such as conditioned reflexes, maturation, or drugs. These behaviours are:



According to Maslow, this type of behavior has no aim or goal but is merely a person's mode of expression

Expressive behaviors


According to Maslow, this type of behavior is ordinarily conscious, effortful, learned, and deals with the person's attempt to cope with the environment. Always motivated by some deficit need

Coping behaviors


Lack of satisfaction of any of the basic needs leads to some kind of:



According to Maslow, this is the absence of values, the lack of fulfillment, and the loss of meaning in life when you are deprived of self-actualization



According to Maslow, these needs are innately determined even though they can be modified by learning

Instinctoid needs


What are for criterion for separating instinctoid needs from noninstinctoid needs?

1) The level of pathology upon frustration
2) instinctoid needs are persistent and their satisfaction leads to psychological health
3) instinctoid needs are species-specific
4) though difficult to change, instinctoid needs can be molded, inhibited, or altered by environmental influences


Maslow believed that higher level needs such as love, esteem, and self-actualization are ______ on the evolutionary scale than lower level needs and that they produce more genuine _______ and more peak experiences

Later, happiness


What are Maslow's four criterion for self actualization?

1) absence of psychopathology
2) they have progressed through the hierarchy of needs
3) they embrace the B values
4) Full realization of one's potential for growth


Maslow believed that self-actualizing people are motivated by the eternal verities, values that are indicators of psychological health and are opposed to deficiency needs. They are the ultimate level of needs. These values are called

B-values or being values.


This type of motivation is characterized by expressive rather than coping behavior and is associated with the B-values according to Maslow.