Chapter 17- Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory Flashcards Preview

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Bandura takes a broad view of learning, believing that people learn through __________ others and by attending to the consequences of their own actions. Although he believes that ___________ aids learning, he contends that people can learn in the absence of __________ and even of a response

Observing, reinforcement, reinforcement


According to Bandura, the core of observational learning is this which involves adding and subtracting from the observed behavior and generalizing from one observation to another. It involves cognitive processes and is not simply mimicry or imitation



What are the three principles that influence modeling according to Bandura?

1) people are most likely to model high-status people
2) people who lack skill or status are most likely to model
3) people tend to model behavior that they see as being rewarding to the model


Bandura recognized four processes that govern observational learning:
1) ________, or noticing what a model does. People are more likely to attend to people they frequently associate with, attractive models, popular figures, and behavior that is important to us
2) __________, or symbolically representing new response pattern in memory. Verbal coding greatly speeds the process of observational learning
3) ________ ________, or producing the behavior that one observes
4) _________, the observer must be motivated to perform the observed behavior

Attention, representation, behavior production, motivation


According to Bandura, with this type of learning all behavior is followed by some consequence, but whether that consequence reinforces the behavior depends on the person's cognitive evaluation of the situation. The consequences of a response serve at least three functions: informs us of the effects of our actions, motivates our anticipatory behavior, reinforces behavior

Enactive learning


According to Bandura, this system assumes that human action is a result of an interaction among three variables: environment, behavior, and person

Triadic reciprocal causation. Bandura does not suggest that the three factors make equal contributions to behavior, but the relative influence of behavior, environment, and person depends on which factor is strongest at any particular moment


People cannot predict or anticipate all possible environmental changes, Bandura is the only personality theorist to seriously consider the possible importance of: (2)

Chance encounters and fortuitous events


According to Bandura, this is an unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other

A chance encounter


According to Bandura, this is an environmental experience that is unexpected and unintended

A fortuitous event


According to Bandura, chance encounters and fortuitous events enter the triadic reciprocal causation paradigm at the ________ point, after which they influence behavior in much the same way as do planned events



Bandura believes that this is the essence of humanness, that is, humans are defined by their ability to organize, regulate, and enact behaviors that they believe will produce desirable consequences

Human agency


According to Bandura, human agency has four core features:
1) _________, A proactive commitment to actions that may bring about desired outcomes
2) _______, The ability to set goals, anticipate likely outcomes of actions, select behaviors that will produce desired outcomes and avoid undesirable ones
3) ____-________, includes monitoring their progress towards fulfilling their choices
4) ____-_________, allows people to think about and evaluate their motives, values, and life goals. People are examiners of their own functioning

Intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, self-reflectiveness


According to Bandura, this is a person's beliefs that they can or cannot exercise those behaviors necessary to bring about a desired outcome



According to Bandura, efficacy expectations differ from ______ expectations, which refer to people's prediction of the likely consequences of their behavior

Outcome expectations


According to Bandura, self-efficacy is acquired, enhanced, or decreased by any one or combination of four sources:
1)_______ ________, or past experiences. Successful performance raises efficacy expectancies, failure tends to lower them
2) ______ _______, vicarious experiences provided by other people-observing someone of equal ability succeed or fail at a task
3) ______ _______, listening to a trusted person's encouraging words
4) ______ and _______ states, such as anxiety or fear which usually lowers self-efficacy

Mastery experiences, social modeling, social persuasion, physical and emotional states

High self-efficacy and a responsive environment are the best predictors of successful outcomes


According to Bandura, this involves indirect control over those social conditions that affect every day living

Proxy agency. People seek proxies to supply their food, deliver information, provide transportation, etc. Without the use of proxies, modern people would be forced to spend most of their time securing the necessities of survival


According to Bandura, this is peoples shared beliefs in their collective power to produce desired results. The confidence people have that their combined efforts will bring about group accomplishments

Collective efficacy.
Four factors can lower collective efficacy: events in other parts of the world can leave people with a sense of helplessness, complex technology can decrease people's perceptions of control over their environment, entrenched bureaucracies discourage people from attempting to bring about social change, the size and scope of worldwide problems contribute to people's sense of powerlessness


By using reflective thought, humans can manipulate their environments and produce consequences of their actions, giving them some ability to regulate their own behavior. Bandura believes that self-regulating behavior stems from a reciprocal influence of ________ and _______ factors

External and internal


Two external factors contribute to self-regulation:

Standards of evaluation
External reinforcement-for example, money or praise and encouragement from others

External factors affect self-regulation by providing people with standards for evaluating their own behavior


Bandura recognizes three internal requirements of self-regulation:
1) ____-_______ of performance, we must be able to monitor our own performance
2) _______ _____, we must evaluate our performance
3) ____-______, people respond positively or negatively to their behaviors depending on how these behaviors measure up to their personal standards

Self-observation, judgemental processes, and self-reaction


People regulate their actions through moral standards of conduct. Bandura sees ______ ______as having two aspects: doing no harm to people, and proactively helping people

Moral agency


According to Bandura, this refers to the notion that self-regulatory influences are not automatic but operate only if activated. It also means that people react differently in different situations, depending on their evaluation of the situation

Selective activation


According to Bandura, this means that people are capable of separating themselves from the negative consequences of their behavior

Disengagement of internal control


According to Bandura, people in ambiguous moral situations who are uncertain that their behavior is consistent with their own social and moral standards of conduct may separate their conduct from its injurious consequences through four general techniques of disengagement:

Redefining the behavior, disregarding or distorting the consequences of behavior, dehumanizing are blaming the victims, displacing or diffusing responsibility


According to Bandura, this technique of disengagement of internal standards is when people justify otherwise reprehensible actions by a cognitive restructuring that allows them to minimize or escape responsibility

Redefinition of behavior.
Can be done through moral justification, in which otherwise comparable behavior is made to seem defensible or even Noble, through pallets of comparisons which are advantageous comparisons between that behavior and the even greater atrocities committed by others, and through the use of euphemistic labels to change the moral tone of their behavior


According to Bandura, in this technique of disengagement of internal standards, people minimize the consequences of their behavior, disregard or ignore the consequences of their actions, and distort or misconstrue the consequences of their actions

Disregard or distort the consequences of behavior


According to Bandura, with this technique of disengagement of internal standards, victims may be seen as subhuman, or a rape victim may be blamed for the perpetrators conduct

Dehumanizing or blaming the victims


With this technique of disengagement of internal control according to Bandura, people minimize the consequences of their actions by placing responsibility on an outside source, or spread the responsibility so thin that no one person is responsible

Displace or diffuse responsibility


According to bandura, dysfunctional behavior is learned through the mutual interaction of the ______, including cognition and neurophysiological processes, the _______, including interpersonal relations and socioeconomic conditions, and ________ factors, including previous experiences with reinforcement

Person, environment, behavioral factors


According to Bandura, people who develop depressive reactions often:
1) ________ their successes and overestimate their failures
2) set personal standards too ____
3) treat themselves badly for their _____

Underestimate, high, faults