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A pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to human behavior

Personality

1

A set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to to formulate testable hypotheses

A theory

2

People often confuse theory with:

Philosophy, speculation, hypothesis, and taxonomy

3

This term means the love of wisdom. It is a broader term than theory.

Philosophy

4

Theory relates most closely to this branch of philosophy which means "the nature of knowledge"

Epistemology

5

The branch of study concerned with observation and classification of data and with the verification of general laws through the testing of hypotheses

Science

6

Theory is a narrower concept than philosophy, but a broader term than:

Hypothesis

7

And educated guess or prediction specific enough for its validity to be tested through the use of the scientific method

Hypothesis

8

A classification of things according to their natural relationships

Taxonomy. Classification is necessary to science, however, taxonomies do not generate hypotheses-a necessary criterion of a useful theory

9

Why are there different personality theories?

Because psychologists and other scientists have differed in their personal background.

10

This is the study of how scientists personalities, cognitive processes, developmental history, and social experience affect the kind of science they conduct and the theories they create

The psychology of science

11

What are the six components of a useful theory

1) generates research
2) is falsifiable
3) organizes data
4) guides action
5) is internally consistent
6) is parsimonious

12

A useful theory will generate two different kinds of research

Descriptive research and hypothesis testing

13

This kind of research is concerned with the measurement, labeling, and categorization of the units employed in theory building

Descriptive research. Can expand an existing theory

14

The second kind of research generated by a useful theory, leads to an indirect verification of the usefulness of the theory

Hypothesis testing

15

A theories ability to be confirmed or disconfirmed

It's falsifiability. A theory must be precise

16

And internally consistent theory is one whose components are logically compatible. A term included in this is one that defines units in terms of observable events or behaviors that can be measured.

An operational definition

17

What are the six dimentions for a concept of humanity

1) determinism versus free choice
2) pessimism versus optimism
3) causality versus teleology
4) conscious versus unconscious determinants of behaviour
5) biological versus social influences
6) uniqueness versus similarities among people

18

Are people's behaviours determined by forces over which they have no control, or can people choose to be what they wish to be

Determinism versus free choice

19

Are people doomed to live miserable, conflicted, and troubled lives, or can they change and grow into psychologically healthy, happy, fully functioning human beings

Pessimism versus optimism

20

Holds that behavior is a function of past experiences

Causality

21

An explanation of behavior in terms of future goals or purposes

Teleology

22

Are people ordinarily aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it, or do unconscious forces impinge on them and drive them to act without awareness of these underlying forces

Conscious versus unconscious determinants of behavior

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Are people mostly creatures of biology, or are they personality shaped largely by their social relationships

Biological versus social influences on personality

24

Is the salient feature of people their individuality, or is it their common characteristics

Uniqueness versus similarities

25

The extent to which a measuring instrument yields consistent results

Reliability

26

The degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure

Validity

27

The extent to which an instrument measures some hypothetical construct. Constructs such as extroversion, aggressiveness, intelligence, and emotional stability. These constructs have no physical existence; they are hypothetical constructs that should relate to observable behaviour

Construct validity

28

Three important types of construct validity are:

Convergent validity, divergent validity, and discriminant validity

29

The extent that a test predicts some future behavior

Predictive validity