Chapter 9 Language and Communication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Language and Communication Deck (41)
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Sunk-Cost Fallacy

A framing effect in which people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation.


Prospect Theory

The proposal that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains.


Frequency Format Hypothesis

The proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur.


Means-End Analysis

A process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current situation and the desired goal.


Analogical Problem Solving

Solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem.


Functional Fixedness

The tendency to perceive the finctoions of objects as fixed.



A mental activity that consists of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.


Practical Reasoning

Figuring out what to do, or reasoning directed towards action.


Theoretical Reasoning

Reasoning directed toward arriving at a belief.


Belief Bias

People's judgements about whether to accept conclusions depend more on how believable the conclusions are than on whether the arguments are logically valid.


Syllogistic Reasoning

Determining whether a conclusion follows from two statements that are assumed to be true.