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Flashcards in Chapter 27 WS Deck (31)
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1

What is the most common primary bone tumor in children?

osteosarcoma

2

What is the most common primary bone tumor in adults?

chondrosarcoma

3

What is the 2nd most common primary bone tumor in adults?

osteosarcoma

4

what is multiple myeloma

A malignant disease of the plasma cells which causes as abnormal absorption of bone resulting in painful osseous lesions

5

In general, do most primary bone tumors occurs more often in males or females?

males

6

are giant cell tumors (GCT) most often benign or malignant?

benign

7

which is more common, primary bone disease or metastatic bone disease?

mets

8

what is the most common primary cancer to spread to bone?

lung cancer

9

translocation of what chromosomes are most often associated with Ewing Sarcoma?

11 and 22

10

define diaphysis

main shaft of the bone

11

define epiphyses

the knoblike portion at either end of a long bone

12

define periosteum

the hard dense covering of the bone

13

where is the most common sites of occurrence of osteosarcomas?

Distal femur followed by the proximal tibia and the proximal humerus.

14

Where do Ewing sarcomas most often develop?

In the appendicular skeleton (pelvis, femur) seen more often in the diaphysis.

15

what three primary cancers most often mets to the bone

lung, breast, and prostate

16

in early stage breast cancer patients, are ER+ or ER- tumors most likely to metastasize to bone.

ER+

17

what is the most common presenting symptom of a bone tumor

pain

18

Chronic symptoms from a bone lesion is most likely to indicate a ___________ (benign or malignant) tumor whereas symptoms that rapidly progress over weeks or a few months is most likely ___________ (benign or malignant)

benign; malignant

19

what is skip metastases

When a second, smaller focus of osteosarcoma in the same bone or a second bone lesion on the opposing side of a joint space appears. This is attributed to the extensive spread by the lesion into the marrow cavity of the bone.

20

are most bone tumors radiosensitive or radioresistant?

radioresistant

21

when is radiaiton used for treatment of osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas?

Osteosarcomas-before surgery, with adjuvant chemotherapy, and when the tumor is unresectable. Radiation is advised for patients with positive surgical margins and partial resections and for nonsurgical candidates.

Chondrosarcomas-When the tumor cannot be completely removed as a result of proximity of critical structures.

22

are chondrosarcomas chemosensitive?

no

23

what is the standard treatment for muliple myeloma?

A combination of chemo and radiation. Chemo is given with curative intent, whereas radiation is effective in controlling the pain from a bony lesion (palliation)

24

What is the purpose of radiation in the treatment of multiple myeloma?

Palliation, used to help manage a symptomatic lesion. The lesion is usually painful and can result in a fracture if not treated

25

What dose of radiation is typically given to multiple myeloma patients?

30 Gy in 10-15 fractions

26

What modalities are used in the treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma?

Surgery, chemo and radiation. Surgery is considered the primary treatment option

27

When treating bone tumors and soft tissue sarcomas, why is it important to leave a strip of unirradiated tissue when planning the treatment portal?

To preserve lymphatic drainage to avoid fluid buildup

28

List three radiopharmaceutical agents used for palliation of metastatic bone disease

Strontium-89, Samarium-153, and radium-223

29

What is the most common soft tissue sarcoma that affects children?

rhabdomyosarcoma

30

What is the common sites of metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas and which is the most common?

Lung, bones, liver, skin. Lung is most common