Chapter 32 WS Flashcards Preview

P & P II > Chapter 32 WS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 32 WS Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

What part of the brain do most CNS tumors occur.

cerebrum

2

What is the most common classification of brain tumor.

glioma

3

What are the functions of the cerebrum.

- Interpretation of sensory impulses and voluntary muscular activities;

- it is the center for memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, intelligence, and emotions

4

what type of primary cancer is most commonly responsible for metastatic brain cancer

lung cancer

5

Which hemisphere of the brain do most metastatic brain cancers occur.

cerebral hemispheres

6

List some late effects of radiation therapy to the brains of children.

- Decrease in IQ scores,
- impaired mental functions such as processing speed, attention, and working memory.

- Higher incidences of emotional distress such as anxiety and depression, which can diminish quality of life.

7

List three structures that are filled with CSF (cerebral spinal fluid).

ventricles, cancals, and subarachnoid space

8

what secretes CSF

Ependymal cells secrete about .5 L of CSF each day into the ventricles. The ependymal cells line the choroid plexuses.

9

What is the tentorium.

A fold of dura mater (the outer covering of the brain) that separates the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres.

10

What structures are located in the supratentorial region..

- The cerebral hemispheres,
- the sella, pineal,
- upper brainstem regions

11

What structures are located in the infratentorial region.

- Brainstem,
- pons,
- medulla, and
- cerebellum

12

Where does the blood supply for the brain come from.

Internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries via the circle of Willis.

13

primary source of enegery for brain cells

glucose

14

where does the spinal cord end

L1-L2

15

what does CSF look like

clear colorless fluid that resemebles water

16

list some lipid soluble substances

- alcohol
- nicotine
- heroin

17

list some water soluble substances

- glucose
- some amino acids
- sodium

18

what substances can cross the BBB

Lipid soluble.

Water-soluble substances can as well if they have a carrier molecule to cross the barrier via active transport

19

what is CSF composed of

- Proteins,
- glucose,
- urea (a compound formed in the liver and excreted by the kidney),
- salts.

20

signs and symptoms of intracranial pressure

- Headaches,
- vomiting,
- lethargy,
- seizures, and
- neurologic symptoms.

21

what is papilledema

edema of the optic disc

results from increased intracranial pressure

22

List some symptoms that indicate a tumor in the front portion of the brain.

- Personality changes,
- memory defects,
- gait disorders,
- speech difficulties

23

List some symptoms that indicate a tumor in the parietal regions of the brain.

- loss of vision,
- spatial disorientation,
- seizures.

24

What radionuclide is used in a PET scan.

FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose).

It is known as a tracer. The tracer collects in areas of the body that have higher levels of chemical activity. Cancer cells show up as bright spots on PET scans because they have a higher metabolic rate than normal cells. (note: other noncancerous conditions can also look like cancers)

25

what is dubulking

reducing the size of a tumor

26

why are most patients with CNS tumors prescribed steroids

to reduce sweeling and subside symptoms

27

Why must the steroid dose be gradually decreased rather than stopped at once.

Because the body stops producing natural steroids when an abundance is found in the bloodstream and it needs to start producing it naturally again before being taken off completely.

28

craniospinal treatment involves treatment to what two areas

entire brain and spinal cord

29

craniospinal treatment is most commonly used in the treatment of what cancer

medulloblastoma

30

at what dose may temporary hair loss occur

2000-4000 cGy