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Flashcards in Ch. 34 WS Deck (63)
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1

Cancers of what organs/structures are considered gynecologic cancers?

Cervix, uterus, ovaries, vulva, and vagina

2

What is the outermost portion of the female genitalia called?

Vulva

3

List the major parts of the vulva.

Labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vestibule.

4

Where is the perineum located in females?

Between the vagina and anus

5

Describe the Vagina and its location in relation to other organs/structures.

6-8 inch muscular tube (cervix to vulva). Surrounded by rectum, urethera, and bladder.

6

What are the three layers of the vaginal wall.

Mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia.

7

What are the three layers of the wall of the uterus

Inner endometrium (mucous membrane), middle myometrium (smooth muscles), and the outer perimetrium (parietal peritoneum).

8

What is the parametrium?

The connective tissue that is immediately lateral to the uterine cervix

9

What is the endocervix and the exocervix?

Endocervix is the part of the cervix closest to the body of the uterus. Exocervix is part of the cervix closes to the vagina.

10

What is the cervical os?

The opening of the cervix (vaginal end)

11

What is the vaginal fornices?

A circular sulcus where the cervix projects through the vaginal wall.

12

What are the two main parts of the uterus?

Cervix and body (fundus)

13

Where does squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix usually originate?

At the squamocolumnar junction (transformation zone), squamous cells of the exocervix.

14

What are the two main parts of the uterus?

two main parts body (fundus) and cervix but other texts separate the body and the fundus. So probably best to know/recognize at least 3 parts (fundus, body, and cervix)

15

What is the best screening tool for cervical cancer?

Pap Smear guidelines recommend one every 3 years starting age 21

16

What is the most common presenting symptom in cervical cancer?

Abnormal vaginal bleeding

17

What are the two most common histological types of cervical cancer?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma 80%-90% , Adenocarcinoma 10%-20%

18

Which histology of cervical cancer has the worst prognosis?

Adenocarcinoma has the worst prognosis (arise in the endocervical mucus-producing gland cells)

19

What is the most common type of gynecologic malignancy?

Endometrial

20

What is the most common histological type of endometrial cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

21

What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?

- Multiple sexual partners,
- sexual intercourse at an early age,
- sexually transmitted diseases, specifically herpes simplex type 2 and HPV (strains 16 and 18). HPV is responsible for nearly 99% of cervical cancers.
- Also oral contraceptives with estrogen alone (no progesterone),
- smoking,
- hormonal factors,
- obesity,
- low socioeconomic status,
- nulliparity, and
- immunosuppression are also risk factors

22

List the clinical symptoms of cervical cancer.

Early stages are asymptomatic then abnormal vaginal discharge, pelvic or back pain, painful urination, and hematuria or hematochezia

23

What staging system is used for cervical cancer?

FIGO

24

What are the most common distant site involved in cervical cancer?

Lungs, liver, & bone

25

What structures become directly invaded by cervical cancer?

Uterus, vagina, parametrium, abdomen, pelvis, rectum, bladder

26

What are the risk factors for endometrial cancers?

A high cumulative exposure to estrogen that is not hindered by progesterone. Estrogen replacement therapy and obesity increase estrogen exposure. Nulliparity, late menopause, early menarche, irregular menstruation, diabetes, a history of infertility and hereditary colon cancer also increased risks. Women taking tamoxifen are at increased risk

27

What is the most common presenting symptom of endometrial cancer?

Postmenopausal bleeding

28

. Is a Pap smear used to screen for endometrial cancer?

no

29

Why is there such a high mortality rate for ovarian cancer?

More than 70% are diagnosed at advanced stages due to very vague symptoms.

30

What is the relationship to BRACA1 and BRACA2 and to ovarian cancer?

Presence of mutated BRACA1 and BRACA2 genes increases the risk of ovarian cancer.