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Microscopically, diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place at the:
a. bifurcation of the trachea.
b. right and left primary bronchi.
c. bronchiolar ducts.
d. alveolar-capillary membranes.

d. alveolar-capillary membranes.


Symptoms associated with local disease include:
I. hemoptysis.
II. dyspnea.
III. orthopnea.
a. I only
b. II only
c. I and II only
d. I, II, and III

a. I only


Symptoms associated with regional disease include:
I. dysphagia.
II. superior vena cava syndrome.
III. orthopnea.
a. I only
b. II only
c. I and II only
d. I, II, and III

d. I, II, and III


In what part of the lung are primary squamous cell carcinomas usually found?
a. Superiorly
b. Centrally
c. Laterally
d. Peripherally

b. Centrally


Critical structures frequently located in the treatment fields for lung cancer include:
a. liver and trachea.
b. esophagus and trachea.
c. spinal cord and heart.
d. heart and esophagus.

a. liver and trachea.


Describe three criteria related to an individual’s tobacco exposure that appear to increase the risk of development of lung cancer.

Increased duration of smoking, increased use of unfiltered cigarettes, increased number of cigarettes consumed


What are three variables that appear to affect significantly the prognosis of patients with lung cancer?

Stage, performance (Karnofsky) status, weight loss


Name the two groups of lymphatics that are primarily responsible for the regional spread of bronchogenic carcinoma.

Mediastinal and intrapulmonic


With conventional fractionation, what is the commonly accepted definitive dose range for localized bronchogenic carcinomas?

6000 to 6600 cGy


List at least three common acute side effects a patient may experience during the course of treatment.

Dermatitis, erythema, esophagitis, dysphagia, coughing