Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Eye And Ear Medications Deck (28)
Anti-infective ophthalmic topical ointments and solutions
Are available for the treatment of superficial infections of the eye caused by susceptible organisms.
• Medication used in the treatment of infections; includes antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals.
Anti-inflammatory ophthalmic agents (Corticosteroids)
Are used to relieve inflammation of the eye or conjunctiva in allergic reactions, burns, irritation from foreign substances or post-operatively.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory ophthalmic drops (NSAIDS)
Are used to treat post-operative inflammation following cataract surgery.
Ophthalmic Immunologic Agent
(e.g. topical cyclosporine [Restasis])
Increases shoe production in patients with tear production is presumed to be suppressed due to ocular inflammation. It is an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplant rejection prophylaxis when administered systemically.
Ophthalmic antihistamines or decongestants
Blocks histamine receptors in the conjunctiva, relieving ocular pruritis associated allergic conjunctivitis. Ophthalmic administration of decongestants causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels, thereby providing relief for minor eye irritation and redness.
Ocular lubricant such as artificial tears solution provide a barrier function at the level of the conjunctival mucosa. They help dilute and plus various allergens and inflammatory mediators that may be present on the ocular surface. Artificial tear products that contain preservatives may cause allergic reactions and should be stopped immediately.
Abnormal condition of the eye with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) because of obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.
• this causes deterioration of and damage to the optic nerve (which carries images on the retina to the brain), resulting in vision loss.
Acute (angle-closure) glaucoma
Characterized by a sudden onset of pain, blurred vision, and a dilated pupil, this condition is considered a medical emergency. Although uncommon, if left untreated, blindness can result in a few hours or days.
Chronic (open-angle) glaucoma
Much more common and often bilateral, this condition develops slowly over a period of years with few symptoms except a gradual loss of peripheral vision and possibly blurred vision. Halos around lights and central blindness are late manifestations.
The first step in glaucoma therapy is ____________________.
Early diagnosis via screening and ensuring the patient abstains from medications that may exacerbate glaucoma.
Given to lower intraocular pressure.
The five main categories of Antiglaucoma drugs:
1. Carbonic anhydrase Inhibitors, for example dorzolamide (Trusopt). Act by decreasing the formation of aqueous humor and have a diuretic effect.
2. Miotics, for example pilocarpine. Act by increasing the aqueous humor outflow.
3. Beta-adrenergic Blockers, for example timolol (Timoptic). Act be decreasing the rate of aqueous humor production.
4. Alpha-agonists, for example brimonidine (Alphagan-P). Decrease the production of aqueous humor and increase outflow.
5. Prostaglandin analogs, for example latanoprost (Xalatan). Act by increasing aqueous outflow.
Pressure within the eyeball.
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs)
Such as acetazolamide reduce the formation of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, which have a diuretic effect and reduce the production of aqueous humor.
Are medications that cause the pupil to contract. Miotics reduce IOP by increasing the aqueous humor outflow. The act by contracting the ciliary muscle; this mechanism also leads to blurred vision.
Are used topically to lower IOP in open-angle glaucoma by decreasing the rate of aqueous humor production.
Decreases the formation and increases the outflow of aqueous humor.
Regarded as first-line agents; the greatest reduction in IOP by increasing the outflow of aqueous humor.
(e.g. atropine) are used topically to dilate the pupil for ophthalmic examinations.
• also acts as a cycloplegic (paralyzes the muscles of accommodation).
paralyzes the muscles of accommodation.
Local ophthalmic anesthetics
Such as tetracaine (TetraVisc), are applied topically to the eye for minor Surgical and diagnostic procedures, removal of foreign bodies, or painful injury.
The ear is made up of three parts:
The outer, middle, and inner ear.
The outer, middle, and inner ear; these parts serve two main purposes:
Hearing and balance.
There are two main categories of common ear conditions:
1. Ear infections
2. Earwax buildup
• these two types of conditions generally involve only the outer and middle ear.
Ear infections; occur most commonly in children, but can also occur in adults.
• they are caused most commonly by bacteria in the middle ear, which leads to inflammation (Otitis media).
Ear infection symptoms:
Symptoms of pain (dull pulsing to sharp stabbing), tenderness, a feeling of "fullness" in the ear, fever, and difficulty hearing.
• it should be noted that infants or small children who cannot talk yet will often become fussy and cry while reaching toward the affected ear. This is an indicator that they may have an ear infection.
Topical otic antibiotics
Are best suited for outer ear infections ("swimmers ear").