Chapter 19 - Analgesics, Sedatives, And Hypnotics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Analgesics, Sedatives, And Hypnotics Deck (25)
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1

Analgesics

(P. 340)

Medications that alleviate pain.

2

Sedatives

(P. 340)

Controlled Substances used to promote sedation in smaller doses, and some may be used to promote sleep in larger doses.

• are given to calm, soothe, or produce sedation.

3

Hypnotics

(P. 340)

Drugs that promote sleep.

4

The four most common types of pain reported by the National Center for Health Statistics are:

(P. 340)

• lower back pain
• neck pain
• migraine pain
• facial or jaw pain

5

Pain is subjective:

(P. 340-341)

It can be experience or perceived only by the individual person.

• perceived by the individual, not observable by others.

6

Endorphins

(P. 341)

Endogenous, (produced or originating within a cell or organism), analgesics produced within the body as a reaction to severe pain or intense exercise.

• they block the transmission of pain.

• endorphin release may be responsible for a placebo effect: relief from pain as a result of suggestion without the administration of an analgesic.

7

Endogenous

(P. 341)

Produced or originating within a cell or organism.

8

Placebo effect

(P. 341)

Relief from pain as the result of congestion without active medication.

9

Opioids

(P. 341)

A compound resembling opium in addictive properties or physiological effects.

• A controlled substance used to treat moderate-to-severe pain. Such as morphine and codeine, but are not made from opium.

• include both the natural opium alkaloids (e.g., morphine and codeine), the semisynthetics (e.g., hydromorphone and oxycodone), and the synthetics (e.g., meperidine [Demerol] and fentanyl [Duragesic]).

10

Tolerance

(P. 342)

Larger dose of opioid is needed to achieve the same level of analgesia.

11

Psychological dependence

(P. 342)

Physical adaptation of the body to the opioid and withdrawal symptoms after abrupt drug discontinuation.

12

Opioid Antagonists

(P. 341 and 591)

Drugs used in the treatment of opioid overdoses and in the operating room, delivery room, and newborn nursery for opiate-induced respiratory depression.

• naloxone (Narcan); reversal agent.

13

naloxone (Narcan)

(P. 344)

• a reversal agent; is used in the treatment of opioid overdoses and in the operating room, delivery room, in newborn nursery for opiate-induced respiratory depression.

14

Opioid agonists

(P. 341 and 591)

Analgesics; Controlled Substances whose action is similar to Opium in altering the perception of pain; can be natural or synthetic.

15

Nonopioid analgesics

(P. 346)

Pain medication that are available without prescription as over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

• given for the purposes of relieving mild to moderate pain, fever, and anti inflammatory conditions, for example arthritis.

• aspirin
• ibuprofen
• acetaminophen
• NSAIDS

16

Salicylates analgesic

(P. 347)

For pain, fever, and Anti-inflammatory actions. (e.g., aspirin [ASA]).

• Causes gastric irritation and bleeding.

17

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

(P. 349)

Is used extensively in the treatment of mild to moderate pain and fever. It has very little effect on inflammation.

18

Tinnitus

(P. 348)

Ringing or roaring in the ears.

19

Adjuvant analgesics

(P. 349)

A drug added to a prescription to hasten or enhance action of a principal ingredient.

20

Coanalgesic

(P. 346)

Nonopioid analgesic drugs that are combined with opioids for more effective analgesic action in relief of acute or chronic pain.

• (e.g., NSAIDS or acetaminophen)

21

Antipyretic

(P. 346)

Medication to reduce fever.

22

Tramadol (Ultram)

(P. 344)

Is a centrally acting synthetic analog of codeine with a dual mechanism of action. It produces analgesia by weak inhibition of norepinephrine serotonin reuptake and is in opioid receptor Agonist.

• Scheduled III controlled substance.

23

Paradoxical reaction

(P. 359 and 592)

Opposite effect from that expected.

24

Migraine

(P. 354)

Is the most common neurovascular headache and may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light or noise.

• Migraines (and most other forms of headache) respond best when treated early.

• Typically, patients who experience chronic migraines will have an aura before the migraine occurs that can help warn them a migraine is about to occur.

25

Medical marijuana (Cannabis)

(P. 359)

Refers to the illegal prescribed use of cannabis or its synthetic derivatives (cannabinoids) to treat a disease with symptoms of chronic pain, nausea, and severe decreased appetite.

• treatments are considered as a treatment option most commonly in end of life situations where palliative care is a priority, orange severe diseases like cancer and HIV/AIDS.