Chapter 15 - Urinary System Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Urinary System Drugs Deck (23)
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1

Diuretics

(P. 241)

Increase urine excretion.

2

Calculus

(P. 242)

(stone) formation in those with hypercalciuria (excess calcium in the urine).

3

Hypokalemia

(P. 242 and 244)

Potassium deficiency. Excessive potassium retention.

4

Hypercalciuria

(P. 242)

Excess calcium in the urine.

5

Hyponatremia

(P. 242)

Low serum sodium level.

6

Hypercalcemia

(P. 242)

Abnormally high blood calcium level.

7

Loop Diuretics

(P. 243)

Act directly on the loop of henle in the kidney to inhibit sodium and chloride reabsorption, which in turn inhibits water re-absorption back into the bloodstream, leading to increased urine formation.

8

Osmotic agents

(P. 245)

Are most frequently used to reduce intracranial or intraocular pressure. (e.g., mannitol)

9

Gout

(P. 247)

Is a form of arthritis and a metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of uric crystals in various joints (especially the big toe, ankle, knee, and elbow), tissues, and sometimes the kidneys, with resultant inflammation and pain.

10

Uricosuric agents

(P. 248)

Act on the kidneys by blocking reabsorption and thereby promoting urinary excretion of uric acid.

• probenecid; this type of drug is used in the treatment of chronic cases of gout and frequent disabling attacks of gouty arthritis.

11

Allopurinol (Zyloprim)

(P. 249)

Is another medication used to treat chronic gout.

12

Overactive bladder (OAB)

(P. 250)

Is a condition characterized by to urinary symptoms Frequency and urgency.

• frequency is defined as having to urinate more than 8 times in 24 hours.

• urgency means the sudden need to urinate.

13

Antispasmodics

(P. 250)

Are used to increase the capacity and decrease the urgency of the urinary bladder.

14

Bladder Antispasmodics are anticholinergic in action,

(P. 250)

tolterdine (Detrol) and oxybutynin, are used to decrease bladder tone and suppress bladder contractions in patients with neurogenic bladder, resulting in decreased incontinence.

15

Mirabegron (Myrbetriq)

(P. 251)

Is the newest bladder antispasmodic, which stimulates beta 3 receptors in the bladder to increase bladder capacity.

16

Bethanechol (Urecholine)

(P. 251)

Is a cholinergic drug, stimulating parasympathetic nerve to bring about contraction of the urinary bladder in cases of non-obstructive urinary retention, usually post-operatively for postpartum.

• it has been called the pharmacological catheterization.

17

Phenazopyridine (AZO Standard)

(P. 252)

Is in oral urinary analgesic or local anesthetic for urinary tract mucosa.

• it is used ONLY for symptomatic relief while waiting to see a physician and is not a substitute for the treatment of causative conditions.

18

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

(P. 252)

Are characterized by symptoms that include increased frequency of urination or sudden urge to urinate, burning while urinating, cloudy or strong smelling urine, and possible pain in the lower abdominal area.

• UTI's can often present with psychological symptoms that include confusion and delirium.

• Antibiotic Macrobid is commonly used to treat UTIs.

19

A side effect of phenazopyridine, although rare is....

(P. 253)

Discoloration of bodily fluids, including orange-red urine (common), which may stain fabric, and causes discoloration of contact lenses.

20

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

(P. 253)

Is the most common benign tumor in men. BPH involved hyperplasia (an increase in number of cells) leading to prostate enlargement, which interferes with urinary flow.

21

Antiandrogens

(P. 254 and 584)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs that are used to treat prostate cancer.

22

Alpha-blockers

(P. 254)

are used in the treatment of hypertension, as well as for BPH.

• Tamsulosin (Flomax)

23

Combination therapy with an antiandrogen (Proscar) and an alpha-blocker (Cardura)...

(P. 254)

In patients with large prostate may significantly reduce the overall clinical progression of BPH and may reduce the need for invasive therapy compared to either agent alone (more data is needed, however).