Chapter 14 - Antineoplastic Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Antineoplastic Drugs Deck (33)
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1

Antineoplastic

(P. 224)

(Against new tissue formation) refers to an agent that counteracts the development, growth, or spread of malignant cells and therefore treats various types of cancer.

2

Benign

(P. 224)

Tumors that are Noncancerous

3

Malignant

(P. 224)

Tumors that are cancerous.

4

Antineoplastic agents can be generally classified into 9 major groups:

(P. 225)

1. Antimetabolites
2. Alkylating agents
3. Mitotic Inhibitors
4. Antitumor antibiotics
5. Hormones and Hormone Modifiers
6. Biological Therapies (CSFs and MABs)
7. Targeted cancer Therapies (STIs)
8. Vaccines
9. Radioactive Isotopes

5

Chemotherapy

(P. 224)

Is a constantly growing field in which many old and new drugs and Drug combinations are used.

6

Palliative effects

(P. 224)

Alleviation of symptoms or for long-term or complete remissions in early treatment of cancer.

7

Cytotoxic

(P. 224)

Antineoplastic drugs are cytotoxic "destructive to cells".

8

Proliferating

(P. 224)

Reproducing rapidly.

9

Signal transduction Inhibitors (STIs)

(P. 224)

New drugs in the targeted therapy category and are given by the oral route.

10

Immunosuppressive

(P. 224 and 589)

Decreasing the production of WBC's, antibodies and phagocytes and depressing the inflammatory reaction.

11

Antimetabolites

(P. 225)

Work by interfering with DNA synthesis, repair, and cellular replication and are used in the treatment of various malignancies, especially those involving rapidly proliferating neoplasms (new growth).

• Some injectable Antimetabolites include methotrexate and fluorouracil.

12

Alkylating Agents

(P. 226)

Are used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. These agents prevent cell growth by damaging DNA needed for reproduction. Can cause long-term damage to the bone marrow.

• Some Alkylating agents include cisplatin and cyclophosphamide.

13

Mitosis

(P. 227)

Refers to the process of cell division and reproduction. Mitotic Inhibitors are often plant alkaloids and other compounds derived from natural products that block mitosis.

14

Plant Alkaloids

(P. 227)

Intrathecal Administration (into the spinal canal) of these agents is fatal.

• This route must not be used. Syringes containing these agents should be labeled, "Warning-- For IV use only, fatal is given intrathecally".

15

Extravasation

(P. 227)

Occurs when a drug or liquid intended for IV Administration leaks into the surrounding tissue.

• in particular, chemotherapy can cause painful irritation, and is left untreated can lead to necrosis of that tissue.

16

Plant Alkaloid - Paclitaxel (Abraxane)

(P. 228)

Is the first approved albumin nanoparticle drug. Was originally extracted from the bark of the Western (Pacific) Yew.

17

Anti-tumor antibiotics

(P. 229)

are used to treat a wide variety of malignancies.

• Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is considered the most active chemotherapy agent and is a critical component in the treatment Protocols of breast, lung, gastric, and ovarian cancers and Lymphoma, but it can permanently damage the heart is a maximum lifetime dose is reached.

18

Corticosteroids

(P. 230)

Such as prednisone, are used primarily for their suppressant effect on lymphocytes in Leukemia and Lymphoma.

19

Hormones and hormone modifiers

(P. 230)

Used in the treatment of cancer include the corticosteroids. Hormone modifiers include the antiestrogen and antiandrogen agents.

20

Dexamethasone

(P. 230)

Large doses have been found to be effective in the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with many antineoplastic agents, when administered before or during chemotherapy. It is also used to treat cerebral edema associated with brain tumors.

21

Antiestrogens

(P. 230)

A nonsteroidal agent belonging to a class of drugs called selective estrogen-receptor modifiers (SERMs), tamoxifen, binds to estrogen receptors in various tissues. It can be used as a primary hormonal therapy both for metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in both men and postmenopausal women and also for palliative treatment. Tamoxifen also stimulates estrogen receptors in bones and may help prevent osteoporosis.

22

Antidrogens

(P. 230)

These drugs include leuprolide acetate, which suppresses testosterone production in the testes and is usually administered intramuscular (IM) (Lupron Depot) or subcutaneously (SC) (Eligard) on monthly regimen every one, three, four, or six depending on the dosage for prostate cancer they are also used as hormonal therapy in the treatment of endometriosis.

23

Six hormones

(P. 231)

Including the estrogens, progestins, and androgens, are also used as antineoplastic agents in the treatment of malignancies involving the reproductive system.

24

Biological Therapies

(P. 231)

Is designed to repair, stimulate, or enhance cancer patients' natural immune systems to more effectively recognize and cancer cells.

25

Interferons

(P. 231)

Is a complex combination of many proteins that boost immune system response. They are used in the treatment of certain leukemia, melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

• also used to treat Hepatitis B and C, multiple sclerosis and other conditions.

26

Colony stimulating factors (CSFs)

(P. 231)

Such as erythropoietin (Epogen, Procrit) usually do not directly affect tumor cells. They encourage bone marrow stem cells to divide and develop into red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets.

27

Monoclonal antibodies (MABs)

(P. 232)

Are exogenous (outside the body) antibodies genetically engineered in the Laboratory. MABs are designed to Target only cancer cells, thereby sparing normal tissues.

28

Angiogenesis Inhibitors (AIs)

(P. 232)

Prevent the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow and invade nearby tissue. AIs may stop or slow the growth of a cancer, not completely eradicate it.

29

Bevacizumab (Avastin), in combination with other agents,

(P. 232)

Is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the highly vascularized colon, kidney, or long.

30

trastuzumb (Herceptin), combined with paclitaxel,

(P. 232)

Another MAB, is indicated for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer in patients with tumors that produce excess amount of protein called HER2.

• All MABs are administered intravenously.

• severe reactions can be minimized by premedicating with Tylenol, Benadryl or Demerol.

• signs of severe reaction is bronchospasms (may be necessary to stop infusion).