Chapter 4 - Medication Preparation And Supplies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Medication Preparation And Supplies Deck (33)
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1

Before administering injections or giving any medications, what are the six rights of Proper Drug Administration?

• right drug

• right dose

• right route

• right time

• right patient

• right documentation

2

The injection site should be free of:

• lesions
• bruises
• inflammation
• edema
• masses
• tenderness
• sites of previous injections

3

What are the three injection routes?

• Intradermal (ID)

• Subcutaneous (SC)

• Intramuscular (IM)

4

Capsule

(P. 44)

Drug contained within a gelatin-type container.

• easier to swallow than non coated tablets.

• double chamber may be pulled apart to add drug powder to soft foods or beverages for patients who have difficulty swallowing (unless specifically contraindicated for absorption).

5

Drug form

(P. 42)

Refers to the type of preparation in which the drug is supplied.

6

Elixir

(P. 45; 587)

Usually sweetened, aromatic liquid used in the compounding of oral medicines.

-Or fluid extract. Liquid drug forms with alcohol base.

• should be tightly capped to prevent alcohol evaporation.

• should not be available to alcoholics.

• caution use in small children.

7

Enema

(P. 45; 587)

The introduction of a solution into the rectum and colon to stimulate bowel activity and cause emptying of the lower intestine.

• drug may be either a suspension (needs to be shaken before administration) or a solution to be administered as an enema.

8

Emulsion

(P. 45)

Liquid drug preparation that contains oils and fats in water.

9

Enteric-coated tablet

(P. 44)

Tablet with a special coating that resists disintegration by gastric juices. The coating dissolves further down the GI tract in the enteric, or intestinal, region.

10

Inhalation drug forms

(P. 52; 590)

Forms of a drug to be inhaled by the respiratory system usually through a specialized device such as a metered-dose inhaler (MDI).

• Spray
• Mist

11

Injectable drug forms

(P. 45-49)

Forms of drugs manufactured to be given via injection such as intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM).

• liquid: drug suspended (suspension) or dissolved (solution) in a sterile vehicle.

• powder: dry particles of drugs. The powder itself cannot be injected. It must be mixed with a sterile diluting solution (sterile water or saline solution) to render an injectable solution.

12

Oral drug forms

(P. 44; 591)

Drugs manufactured to be given via the oral route such as pills, solutions, and capsules.

• tablet
• enteric-coated
• capsule
• lozenge
• suspension

13

Lozenge (troche)

(P. 44)

Tablet containing a palatable flavoring, indicated for a local (often soothing) effect on the throat or mouth.

14

Parenteral

(P. 43)

Refers to any route not involving the GI tract, including injection, topical (skin or mucosal), transdermal and the inhalation route.

15

Reconstitution

(P. 46; 593)

The return of a substance previously altered for preservation and storage to its original state, as is done with dried blood plasma and powdered medications.

16

Rectal drug forms

(P. 45; 593)

Drugs manufactured to be administered via the rectal route, such as suppositories.

• suppository
• enema

17

Route of delivery

(P. 42; 593)

The way that drugs are taken into the body.

• intramuscular
• intravenous
• topical
• oral
• rectal
• subcutaneous

18

Solution

(P. 45)

Liquid drug form in which the drug is totally and evenly dissolved.

• Appearance is clear rather than cloudy or settled (as with a suspension).

19

Suppository

(P. 45)

Drug suspended in a substance, such as cocoa butter, that melts at body temperature.

Used:
• rectal
• vagial
• urethral

20

Suspension

(P. 44)

Liquid form of medication that must be shaken well before administration because the drug particles settle at the bottom of the bottle. The drug is not evenly dissolved in the liquid until properly shaking the mixture.

21

Sustained-release capsule or tablet

(P. 44)

Capsule or tablet containing drug particles that have various coatings (often of different colors) that differ in the amount of time required before the coatings dissolve. This form of drug preparation is designed to deliver a dose of drug over an extended period of time.

21

Sustained-release capsule or tablet

(P. 44)

Capsule or tablet containing drug particles that have various coatings (often of different colors) that differ in the amount of time required before the coatings dissolve. This form of drug preparation is designed to deliver a dose of drug over an extended period of time.

22

Syrup

(P. 45; 594)

A concentrated solution of sugar in water to which specific medicinal substances are usually added.

• Sweetened, flavored liquid drug form. Cherry syrup drug preparations are common for children

23

Tablet

(P. 44)

Disk of compressed drug.

24

Topical drug forms

(P. 49)

Drugs for dermal application and drugs for mucosal application.

-Those for dermal application include the following:

• cream or ointment
• lotion
• liniment
• transdermal patch

Those for mucosal application include the following:
• eye, ear, and nose drops
• eye ointment
• vaginal creams
• rectal and vaginal suppositories
• douche solution
• Buccal tablet
• sublingual tablet
• sandwiching the drug between very thin plastic membranes and then placing it under the patient's eyelid.

25

Intramuscular injection

(P. 46)

Injected into the muscle by positioning the needle and syringe at a 90 degree angle from the skin.

•Absorption is fairly rapid due to the vascularity (presence of many blood vessels) in the muscle

26

Subcutaneous injection

(P. 46)

Injected into the fatty layer of tissue below the skin by positioning the needle and syringe at a 45 degree angle from the skin.

• this may be the route of choice for drugs that should not be absorbed as rapidly as through the IV or IM routes.

27

Intradermal injections

(P. 46)

Injected just beneath the skin by positioning the needle bevel up and the syringe at a 15 degree angle from the skin.

•This route is used primarily for allergy skin testing.

• because of the lack of vascularity in the dermis, absorption is slow.

28

Intravenous injections

(P. 46)

Injected directly into a vein. Immediate absorption and availability to major organs renders this route a dangerous one.

• IV drugs are usually administered by physicians, paramedics, or registered nurses.

• Types of IV Injections:
• IV Push
• IV Infusion
• IV piggyback (IVPB)

29

Epidural injection

(P. 48)

Injected into a catheter that has been placed by an anesthesiologist in the epidural space of the spinal canal.

• Medications for pain can be administered into the catheter by bolus a (measured amount of solution) in a syringe or by continuous infusion through the tubing attached to a bag of solution.