Chapter 3 - Sources And Bodily Effects Of Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Sources And Bodily Effects Of Drugs Deck (33)
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1

Drug Interactions

(P. 32 & 587)

Response that may occur when more than one drug is taken. The combination may alter the expected response of each individual drug.

2

Drug Processes

(P. 32 & 587)

4 biological changes that drugs undergo within the body:

☆ ADME

• Absorption
• Distribution
• Metabolism
• Excretion

3

Source of Drugs

(P. 24 & 594)

Five ways that the drugs are obtained:

• Plants
• Minerals
• Animals
• Synthetic
• DNA (genetic engineerd)

4

Anaphylactic Reaction

(P. 38)

Severe, possibly fatal, allergic (hypersensitivity) response.

5

Hypersensitivity

(P. 38)

Immune response (allergy) to a drug may be a varying degrees:

• may be mild with no immediate effects; rashes or hives may appear after three to four days of drug therapy.

• May develop after uneventful previous uses of a drug.

• more likely to exist in patients with other known allergies.

5

Hypersensitivity

(P. 38)

Immune response (allergy) to a drug may be a varying degrees:

• may be mild with no immediate effects; rashes or hives may appear after three to four days of drug therapy.

• May develop after uneventful previous uses of a drug.

• more likely to exist in patients with other known allergies.

6

Dependence

(P. 38)

Acquired need for a drug that may produce psychological or physical symptoms of withdrawal when the drug is discontinued.

7

Tolerance

(P. 38)

Decreased response to a drug that develops after repeated doses are given.

8

Teratogenic Effect

(P. 37)

Effect from maternal drug administration that causes physical defects in a fetus.

9

Paradoxical Reaction

(P. 37)

Opposite effect from that expected.

10

Idiosyncratic Reaction

(P. 37)

Unique, unusual and unexpected response to a drug.

11

Adverse Drug Reaction

(P. 37)

When side effects from a drug cause the patient to have a negative reaction.

12

Keep Vein Open (KVO)

(P. 36)

Is a slow rate of IV fluid administration used to maintain patency of the IV for quick access for medication delivery.

13

Pharmacogenomics

(P. 33)

Is a science that examines how our genes may explain if a drug should work and if it will be toxic to our bodies.

Example: the enzymes that metabolize drugs are genetically determined.

14

Dosage

(P. 33)

Is defined as the amount of a drug given for a particular therapeutic or desired effect:

• minimum
• maximum
• loading
• maintenance
• toxic
• lethal
• therapeutic

15

Antagonism

(P. 32)

The opposing action of two drugs in which one decreases or cancels out the effect of the other.

☆ Antagonist

16

Potentiation

(P. 32)

The action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the effect of the other.

☆ Pain meds

17

Synergism

(P. 32)

The action of two drugs working together in which one helps the other simultaneously for an effect that neither could produce alone.

• drugs that work together

18

Placebo Effect

(P. 31)

Some more positive the patient feels about the medication being taken, the more positive the physical response.

19

Toxicity

(P. 30)

Refers to a condition that results from exposure to either a poison or a dangerous amount of a drug that is normally safe when given in a smaller amount.

20

Therapeutic Range

(P. 30)

The range of drug levels in the blood that will give the desired effect without causing serious side effects.

21

Cumulative Effect

(P. 30)

Is an increased effect of a drug demonstrated when repeated doses accumulate in the body.

22

Prodrugs

(P. 29)

A group of drugs that are inactive when administered and only become active when they are metabolized by the liver.

23

Local Effect

(P. 27)

Is limited to the area of the body where it is administered.

24

Excretion

(P. 27)

Eliminating waste products of drug Metabolism from the body.

25

Metabolism

(P. 27)

Physical and chemical alterations that the substance undergoes in the body.

26

Distribution

(P. 27)

Moving from the bloodstream into the tissues and fluids of the body.

27

Absorption

(P. 27)

Passage of a substance through a membrane into the bloodstream.

28

Pharmacokinetics

(P. 27)

Literally means what happens to the drug as it moves through your body.

"Kinetics" means "movement"

29

Systemic Effect

(P. 25)

Reaches widespread areas of the body.