Flashcards in Anatomy 9 - Resp. System Deck (37)
What are the parts of the upper respiratory tract? (4)
Right and left nasal cavities
What are the parts of the lower respiratory tract (the respiratory tree"? (6)
Right and left main bronchus
At what level does the larynx become the trachea and the pharynx become the oesophagus? e.g. the upper resp. tract becomes the lower resp. tract
What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?
How many lobes does the right lung have?Names?
How many lobes does the left lung have?Names?
How many segmental bronchi does each lung have?
10 (for each bronchopulmonary segment)
What are the names of the deep fissures that separate the lung lobes from each other?
What does each lung lobe and each bronchopulmonary segment have its own supply of?
What type of epithelium lines the bronchial tree (except for the distal bronchioles and alveoli)?What are 2 of the prominent features of this epithelium?
Mucous glands (which secrete mucous onto the epithelial surface)
Cilia (beat to sweep the mucous (plus an foreign bodies) superiorly towards the pharynx where it is swallowed ("mucociliary escalator")
What 2 things interfere with the normal beating of the cilia?
Cooling/drying of the mucosa
Toxins in cigarette smoke
What supports the walls of the trachea and all the bronchi?
Hyaline cartilage (posterior aspect of trachea does not have cartilage)
What happens to the amount of cartilage maintaining the potency of the airways as you move distally?
Gradually reduces until you get to the walls of the more distal bronchioles and alveoli which do not contain any cartilage
What happens to the amount of smooth muscle in the walls of the airways as you move distally through the respiratory tree?
Become more prominent (most prominent feature of the walls of the bronchioles - allows them to constrict and dilate)
Why does alveoli ave neither cartilage or smooth muscle in their walls?
As this would impact on diffusion
What must be present in the tissue spaces around the alveolar capillaries to facilitate gaseous diffusion?
Minimal tissue fluid
What separates the 2 nasal cavities?
The nasal septum
What are the 2 parts of the nasal septum?
What 2 bones make up the nasal septum?
Ethmoid bone (superiorly)
What type of cartilage makes up the septal cartilage?
What forms the floor of the nasal cavity?What forms the roof of the nasal cavity?
Palateanterior cranial fossa
What are the several cartilages make up the skeleton of the larynx?
2 arytenoid cartilages (posteriorly)
What are the 3 functions of the larynx?
Cartilage helps to maintain patency of the URT
Helps to prevent the entry of foreign bodies into the LRT (vocal cords)
Produces sound (vocal cords)
What is the name of the narrowest part of the larynx?
How does the vocal cords help to protect the airway?
They can approximate in the midline closing the rim flotillas and preventing the foreign body being inhaled into the trachea
A cough reflex is then stimulated to expel the foreign body via the pharynx and oral cavity
What is the difference between phonation and articulation?
Phonation = producing sound (air expired across the vocal cords which vibrate to produce sound)
Articulation = producing speech (sound is modified int he nose or mouth to produce vowels and consonants)
What features are present on the lateral walls of the nasal cavities?
What is the purpose of the conchae?
Greatly increase surface area of lateral walls of nasal cavities
Produce turbulent flow bringing the air into contact with the walls
Respiratory mucosa lining it has very good arterial blood supply = warmth, mucous = moisture and traps potentially infected particles
Cilia waft mucosa to pharynx to be swallowed
What do the tonsils do in terms of air breathed in?
Aid in its cleaning (produce white blood cells in the defence against infection)