Anatomy 9 - Resp. System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy 9 - Resp. System Deck (37)
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1

What are the parts of the upper respiratory tract? (4)

Right and left nasal cavities
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Larynx

2

What are the parts of the lower respiratory tract (the respiratory tree"? (6)

Trachea
Right and left main bronchus
Lobar bronchi
Segmental bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli

3

At what level does the larynx become the trachea and the pharynx become the oesophagus? e.g. the upper resp. tract becomes the lower resp. tract

C6 vertebrae

4

What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

The nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Hypopharynx (laryngopharnx)

5

How many lobes does the right lung have?Names?

3
Upper
middle
Lower

6

How many lobes does the left lung have?Names?

2
Upper
Lower

7

How many segmental bronchi does each lung have?

10 (for each bronchopulmonary segment)

8

What are the names of the deep fissures that separate the lung lobes from each other?

Fissures

9

What does each lung lobe and each bronchopulmonary segment have its own supply of?

Air supply
Blood supply
Lymphatic drainage
Nerve supply

10

What type of epithelium lines the bronchial tree (except for the distal bronchioles and alveoli)?What are 2 of the prominent features of this epithelium?

Respiratory epithelium
Mucous glands (which secrete mucous onto the epithelial surface)
Cilia (beat to sweep the mucous (plus an foreign bodies) superiorly towards the pharynx where it is swallowed ("mucociliary escalator")

11

What 2 things interfere with the normal beating of the cilia?

Cooling/drying of the mucosa
Toxins in cigarette smoke

12

What supports the walls of the trachea and all the bronchi?

Hyaline cartilage (posterior aspect of trachea does not have cartilage)

13

What happens to the amount of cartilage maintaining the potency of the airways as you move distally?

Gradually reduces until you get to the walls of the more distal bronchioles and alveoli which do not contain any cartilage

14

What happens to the amount of smooth muscle in the walls of the airways as you move distally through the respiratory tree?

Become more prominent (most prominent feature of the walls of the bronchioles - allows them to constrict and dilate)

15

Why does alveoli ave neither cartilage or smooth muscle in their walls?

As this would impact on diffusion

16

What must be present in the tissue spaces around the alveolar capillaries to facilitate gaseous diffusion?

Minimal tissue fluid

17

What separates the 2 nasal cavities?

The nasal septum

18

What are the 2 parts of the nasal septum?

Bony (posterior)
Cartilaginous (anterior)

19

What 2 bones make up the nasal septum?

Ethmoid bone (superiorly)
Vomer (inferiorly)

20

What type of cartilage makes up the septal cartilage?

Hyaline

21

What forms the floor of the nasal cavity?What forms the roof of the nasal cavity?

Palateanterior cranial fossa

22

What are the several cartilages make up the skeleton of the larynx?

Epiglottis
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
2 arytenoid cartilages (posteriorly)

23

What are the 3 functions of the larynx?

Cartilage helps to maintain patency of the URT
Helps to prevent the entry of foreign bodies into the LRT (vocal cords)
Produces sound (vocal cords)

24

What is the name of the narrowest part of the larynx?

Rima flottidis

25

How does the vocal cords help to protect the airway?

They can approximate in the midline closing the rim flotillas and preventing the foreign body being inhaled into the trachea
A cough reflex is then stimulated to expel the foreign body via the pharynx and oral cavity

26

What is the difference between phonation and articulation?

Phonation = producing sound (air expired across the vocal cords which vibrate to produce sound)
Articulation = producing speech (sound is modified int he nose or mouth to produce vowels and consonants)

27

What features are present on the lateral walls of the nasal cavities?

The conchae

28

What is the purpose of the conchae?

Greatly increase surface area of lateral walls of nasal cavities
Produce turbulent flow bringing the air into contact with the walls
Respiratory mucosa lining it has very good arterial blood supply = warmth, mucous = moisture and traps potentially infected particles
Cilia waft mucosa to pharynx to be swallowed

29

What do the tonsils do in terms of air breathed in?

Aid in its cleaning (produce white blood cells in the defence against infection)

30

What are the parts of the chest wall? (4)

Skin and fascia
Bones
skeletal muscles of the chest wall and diaphragm
Parietal pleura