Immunology 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

1st Year - Principles > Immunology 1 and 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology 1 and 2 Deck (63)
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1

SCID? What is it?

Severe combined immunodeficiencySevere abnormalities of the immune system

2

5 things caused by the immune system going wrong?

Cancerrecurrent infectionsTransplant rejectionAllergiesAutoimmune disease

3

6 causes of emergence of new infections?

Global villagepopulation growthchange in human behaviourchanges in dynamic of other infections loss of natural habitatInteractions of pathogens with humans e.g. resistance

4

What exists between pathogens and hosts

Evolutionary arms race

5

Where do pathogens infect the body through?

Mucosal surfaces (airway, GI tract, repro. tract)External epithelia (wounds, insect bites, etc.)

6

5 components of the body that protect against infection?

Lymph nodesSpleenLymphaticsBone MarrowSkin

7

How does the skin protect against infection?

Physical barrier (highly packed, highly keratinised, multilayered cells)Physiological barrier (low pH (5.5), low O2 tension)Sebaceous glands (secrete hydrophobic oil, lysozyme (destroys bacterial cell wall), ammonia (anti-bacf. properties), defensins (anti-microbial peptides))

8

What does mucous line

All cavities that come into contact with the environment e.g. resp, GI, urogenital

9

How does mucous prevent infection?

Physical barriercontains IgA contains enzymes (lysozyme, defensins)Contains lactoferrin (starves invading bacteria of iron)

10

what do cilia do

Directly trap pathogensaid in the removal of mucous

11

How does commensal bacteria help to prevent infection?

Competes with pathogenic microbes for scarce resourcesProduces fatty acids and bactericidns reduce pH in large bowelSynthesise vitamin K and B12

12

What is bactericidin

An antibody that causes complement dependent lysis of bacteria

13

What does eradication of normal flora by board spectrum antibiotics often cause?

Opportunistic infection

14

Probiotics

Live bacteria and east that are good for your health

15

Immune system?

Network of specialised cells, tissues and soluble factors that co-operate to kill and eliminate disease-causing pathogens and cancer cells

16

4 classes of pathogen

Extracellular bacteria, parasites, fungiIntracellular bacteria, parasitesViruses (intracellular)Parasitic worms (Extracellular)

17

See mind map study material for info about components of the immune system

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18

Antigen

Any substance that can stimulate an immune response

19

Complement system

Family of approx. 30 different proteins

20

Where is complement produced?

In the liver

21

What do antibodies provide defence against?

Extracellular pathogens and toxins

22

Where do complement proteins become activated?

infected/ inflamed tissues

23

What do complement proteins have the ability to do?

enzymatically cleave and activate other downstream complement proteins in a biological cascade

24

Name for chemical messanger

cytokine

25

Summarised role of cytokines

co-ordinates the immune system

26

4 examples of cytokines?

Interferons, tumour necrosis factor, chemokines, interleukins

27

Interferons?

Anti-viral activity

28

Tumour necrosis factor

Pro-inflammatory cytokine

29

Chemokines?

Control and directs cell migration

30

Interleukins

Various functions e.g. inflammatory mediator, stimulate T lymphocytes to become NK cells