Flashcards in Pathology 7 and 8 - Neoplasia 1 and 2 Deck (74)
What is cancer?
Uncontrolled cell proliferation and growth that can invade other tissues (can metastasise)
What is a tumour?
A descriptive word to describe swelling - can be benign, malignant, inflammatory or even a foreign body
What is neoplasia?
Is neoplasia in response to a stimulus?
No - unlike hyperplasia which is
Is neoplasia benign, premalignant or malignant?
Can by either of the 3
Is neoplasia and cancer interchangeable?
No - not all neoplasia is cancerous
What is the only place in the body that has not been reported to have undergone neoplastic change?
The lens of the eye - can occur in any other cell of the body
What is the difference between benign and malignant?
Anything that can spread to other parts of the body is malignant
What is invasion?What is metastases?
When the cancer cells moves directly into a new partWhen the cancer cells break off and migrate to another part of the body
What must an epithelial malignancy invade in order to metastasise?
The basement membrane
What is dysplasia?
Is dysplasia always cancer?
No but they can become cancer
Is dysplasia in response to a stimulus?
Does invasion occur with dysplasia?
No - when dysplasia invades it is called cancer
What are the grades of dysplasia?
Low grade = takes a while to metastasiseHigh grade = closest to becoming cancer
What are we looking for in cervical smear screening?
What is carcinoma in-situ?Is this cancer?
Dysplasia affecting the whole of the epithelium which is confined by the basement membrane (it has not yet invaded)There is debate to whether this is classified as cancer or not as it has not invaded yet but it is the last stage before invasion
What is metaplasia?
Change from one mature cell type to another usually in response to a stimulus
What metaplasia can occur in the bladder due to having a catheter?
Transitional epithelium to squamous epithelium
Is metaplastic epithelium at risk of undergoing metaplastic change?
Is hyperplastic tissue at risk of developing cancer?
Yes - if you keep telling something to turn on it can become automatic and no longer require a stimulus
What causes cancer?
Genes (increase risk)Chemicals (e.g. smoking)AlcoholUV radiationOther radiationDrugsInfectionsObesitySome have an unknown cause
What are the 4 main groups of genes that cancer cells target?
OncogenesTumour suppessor genesSpell checkersGenes that aid in avoiding apoptosis
What are the cell changes that occur with cancer formation?
Dysplasia to carcinoma in situ to invasion =cancer
Are rare tumours or more common tumours easier to find a cause for?
Rare tumours - many cancers are caused by a combination of more than one factor
What is BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes?
Genes that produce tumour suppressor proteins and when faulty can lead to breast cancer
What is a tumour suppressor gene?
a gene whose function is to limit cell proliferation (operate at the cell cycle checkpoints) and loss of whose function leads to cell transformation and tumor growth.
What is an oncogene?
A gene that played a normal role in the cell as a proto-oncogene and that has been altered by mutation and now may contribute to the growth of a tumor.
What does autosomal dominant mean?
Only one copy of a faulty gene is needed for it to have an effect - a single altered copy of the gene is enough to increase a person’s chances of developing cancer.