Anatomy 10 and 11 - GI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy 10 and 11 - GI Deck (58)
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1

What is the GI tract lined by?

Mucosa

2

What is the purpose of the pharynx (3)?

Defence against infection (tonsils)
Swallowing
Airway protection

3

What is the dividing point between the upper and lower GI tracts

Small intestines = upper
Caecum = lower

4

Parts of the large intestine?

Appendix
Caecum
Colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid)
Rectum
Anal canal

5

What is there to protect us against sharp or excessively hot/cold substances

General sensory receptors

6

What prevents things becoming obstructed in the upper GI tract? (4)

Chewing
Lubrication
Swallowing
Peristalsis

7

What bones is the hard palate composed of?

The maxilla and palatine bones

8

At what joint does jaw opening and closing occur?What are these joints between?

The temperomandibular jointssynovial joints between the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone and the condylar process of the mandible

9

4 muscles of mastication

Masseter
temporalis
medial pterygoid
lateral pterygoid

10

What muscle produces an anterior oral seal preventing dribbling

Orbiculrais oris

11

In the oral cavity, what is the mucosa lined with?What in the mouth has surface keratin?

Stratified squamous epithelium (for its protection)
Gingivae and hard palate (for protection during chewing)

12

General sensations of the oral cavity (4) and special sensation?

Pain
Temperature
touch
proprioception
Taste

13

How many different types of papilla does the dorsum of the tongue carry?

4 (some just give surface texture to help manipulate food whereas others are concerned with taste)

14

Names of the 4 different types of tongue papilla and their function?

Foliate papillae
Vallate papillate
Fungiform paillae (all above = taste)
Filliform papillae (touch, temperature, etc.)

15

What 2 types of tongue muscles do you get and what does each type do in general

Extrinsic = move tongue around in oral cavity during mastication, swallowing and speech
Intrinsic = modify shape of tongue during function

16

What is the muscle of the cheek and what does it do?

Buccinator
Helps the tongue to position the food bolus between the occlusal surfaces of the teeth for mastication

17

How many teeth should an adult have?

32 (3 molars (1 is wisdom tooth), 2 premolars, 1 canine and 2 incisors per quadrant)

18

How is the dentition split in terms of areas

Quadrants e.g. upper right, lower left, etc.

19

What should any patient with a suspected fracture of the mandible or maxilla be asked?

How does your bite feel?
(Displaced fracture may affect occlusion and patients are very sensitive to changes in occlusion)

20

What does saliva contain which aids in swallowing and speech and for keeping the mucosa moist

Mucin which is a lubricant

21

What does saliva buffer

Plaque acids

22

What are some of the things saliva contains

Mucin (lubricant)
Antimicrobial elements
Amylase

23

What are the major salivary glands?

Parotid glands (near ear)
Submandibular glands (under mandible)
Sublingual glands (under tongue)
These produce 90% of our saliva (500-750ml/day)
Also have 1000s of minor secretions in our oral mucosa which keep the mouth moist by creating background and continuous secretion

24

What stimulates salivation (4)

Sight, smell or presence of food in mouth
Painful oral conditions

25

What type of mucosa is the pharynx lined with

Non-keratinised stratified squamous mucosa

26

Are the muscle controlling the pharynx voluntary or involuntary?

Voluntary

27

Where does the nasopharynx run to?What does the laryngopharynx run between

The soft palate
The epiglottis and oesophagus (posterior to the larynx)

28

What is the name for the group of tonsils in the oral cavity?

Waldeyer's ring

29

What 2 structures guide the food bolus away from the midline laryngeal inlet?

The uvula of the soft palate
The epiglottis

30

What are the 2 layers of muscle of the oropharynx

Inner vertically arranged layer of longitudinal muscles of the pharynx
Outer circularly arranged layer of constrictor muscles of the pharynx