Flashcards in Anatomy 10 and 11 - GI Deck (58)
What is the GI tract lined by?
What is the purpose of the pharynx (3)?
Defence against infection (tonsils)
What is the dividing point between the upper and lower GI tracts
Small intestines = upper
Caecum = lower
Parts of the large intestine?
Colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid)
What is there to protect us against sharp or excessively hot/cold substances
General sensory receptors
What prevents things becoming obstructed in the upper GI tract? (4)
What bones is the hard palate composed of?
The maxilla and palatine bones
At what joint does jaw opening and closing occur?What are these joints between?
The temperomandibular jointssynovial joints between the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone and the condylar process of the mandible
4 muscles of mastication
What muscle produces an anterior oral seal preventing dribbling
In the oral cavity, what is the mucosa lined with?What in the mouth has surface keratin?
Stratified squamous epithelium (for its protection)
Gingivae and hard palate (for protection during chewing)
General sensations of the oral cavity (4) and special sensation?
How many different types of papilla does the dorsum of the tongue carry?
4 (some just give surface texture to help manipulate food whereas others are concerned with taste)
Names of the 4 different types of tongue papilla and their function?
Fungiform paillae (all above = taste)
Filliform papillae (touch, temperature, etc.)
What 2 types of tongue muscles do you get and what does each type do in general
Extrinsic = move tongue around in oral cavity during mastication, swallowing and speech
Intrinsic = modify shape of tongue during function
What is the muscle of the cheek and what does it do?
Helps the tongue to position the food bolus between the occlusal surfaces of the teeth for mastication
How many teeth should an adult have?
32 (3 molars (1 is wisdom tooth), 2 premolars, 1 canine and 2 incisors per quadrant)
How is the dentition split in terms of areas
Quadrants e.g. upper right, lower left, etc.
What should any patient with a suspected fracture of the mandible or maxilla be asked?
How does your bite feel?
(Displaced fracture may affect occlusion and patients are very sensitive to changes in occlusion)
What does saliva contain which aids in swallowing and speech and for keeping the mucosa moist
Mucin which is a lubricant
What does saliva buffer
What are some of the things saliva contains
What are the major salivary glands?
Parotid glands (near ear)
Submandibular glands (under mandible)
Sublingual glands (under tongue)
These produce 90% of our saliva (500-750ml/day)
Also have 1000s of minor secretions in our oral mucosa which keep the mouth moist by creating background and continuous secretion
What stimulates salivation (4)
Sight, smell or presence of food in mouth
Painful oral conditions
What type of mucosa is the pharynx lined with
Non-keratinised stratified squamous mucosa
Are the muscle controlling the pharynx voluntary or involuntary?
Where does the nasopharynx run to?What does the laryngopharynx run between
The soft palate
The epiglottis and oesophagus (posterior to the larynx)
What is the name for the group of tonsils in the oral cavity?
What 2 structures guide the food bolus away from the midline laryngeal inlet?
The uvula of the soft palate