Anatomy 7 - Movement Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy 7 - Movement Deck (42)
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1

3 different types of muscle?
Voluntary?
Striated?

Cardiac muscle (involuntary and started)
Smooth muscle (involuntary and non-striated)
Skeletal muscle (voluntary and striated)

2

What is skeletal muscle made up of?

Skeletal muscle -> fasciles -> muscle fibre (myocyte/ muscle cell) -> myofibrils -> actin and myosin microfilaments

3

Why does striations look like stripes?

Due to overlapping actin and myosin

4

What happens when a muscle is strained?

Some of the muscle fibres are torn

5

Types of skeletal muscles? (5)

Circular
Pennate
Fusiform
Flat with aponeurosis
Quadrate

6

Example of a circular muscle

Orbicularis oculi

7

Example of a pennate muscle

Deltoid

8

Example of fusiform muscle

Biceps brachi

9

Example of a flat muscle

External oblique

10

Example of a quadrate muscle?

Rectus abdominus

11

What is a flattened tendon called?

An aponeurosis

12

What are the 2 points at which muscle attaches to bone called?

Origin(s)
Insertion(s)
(origin is a fixed point where as the insert moves with contraction)

13

How many origins and insertions does biceps brachi have?

2 origins
1 insertion

14

Along which axis does a muscle contract?

Long axis

15

Which joints can biceps brachii move?

Shoulder
Elbow
Radioulnar joint(as spans all 3 of these joints)

16

What is a reflex?

A rapid, predictable, involuntary reaction to "danger"

17

What are the 2 main reflexes involving skeletal muscles?

Stretch reflex (deep tendon reflexes)
Flexion withdrawal reflex (sudden flexion to withdraw when we touch something potentially dangerous)

18

What is an example of a stretch (deep tend reflex)?

Biceps jerk, knee jerk

19

How are deep tendon (stretch) reflexes tested?

Tendon hammer is used to apply a brief, sudden stretch to the muscle via its tendonIn order to prevent overstitching, the muscle contracts, pulling on the tendon and causing a knee jerk

20

What tendon is being stretched when creating a knee jerk reflex?

The patellar tendon

21

How does a deep tendon reflex work in terms of nerves?

Sensory nerve from muscle detected stretch and tells spinal cord
Synapse in spinal cord between sensory and motor nerves
Motor nerve from spinal cord passes message to muscle to contract

22

What is the synapse called where the motor nerve communicates wit the skeletal muscle during a reflex?

Neuromuscular junction

23

What is the name of the whole route taken by the action potentials during a reflex?

Reflex arc

24

What does a normal stretch reflex indicate is working? (5)

The muscles sensory nerve fibres
motor nerve fibres
The spinal cord connection between the 2
The neuromuscular junction
"descending controls" from the brain

25

What is the brains role in a reflex?

To prevent the reflex from being overly brisk

26

What is wrong with a muscle that does not have a functioning motor nerve supply?

It is paralysed

27

What is paralysed muscle unable to do?

Contract

28

What will a paralysed muscle look like on examination?

Reduced tone

29

What is the word used to describe a muscle that has an intact and functioning motor nerve but the descending controls from the brain aren't working?

Spastic

30

What will a spastic muscle appear like on examination?

Increased tone