Flashcards in Anatomy 12 and 13 - Nervous System Deck (113)
What are the 2 anatomical divisions of the nervous system?
CNS (brain, spinal cord)
PNS (all tissues not within the spinal cord)
What type of nerves do you get within the PNS? (3)
Spinal nerves (connect with the spinal cord)
Cranial nerves (connect with the brain)
Autonomic nerves (control organs, smooth muscles, glands, can be visceral afferents, sympathetic nerves or parasympathetic nerves)
What type of autonomic nerves do you get? (3)
Parts of a neurone? (4) + function
Dendrites (receive and conduct info towards cell body)
Body (processes information)
Myelin sheath (insulates nerve fibre helping signal travel quicker)
Axon (or nerve fibre - conduct signal away from cell body)
What is a collection of nerve cell bodies called in the:CNS?PNS?
What are bundles of axons called in the:CNS?PNS?
CNS = tract
PNS = nerve
What are nerves?
Bundles of axons (nerve fibres) wrapped in connective tissue which are travelling to or from the same region
What can bundles of axons leave a nerve as?
What is a synapse?What happens at the synapse?
The region where one neurone communicates with another neurone in a ganglion in the PNS or in a nucleus in the CNS An electrical signal (AP) becomes a chemical signal (neurotransmitter) then an electrical signal again
What are the 3 main parts of the brain?
What are the 4 main lobes of the cerebrum?
What is the outer layer of the cerebrum called?
Cerebral neocortex (cortex)
What are the 2 halves of the cerebrum called?
Right and left cerebral hemisphere
What does the cerebral neocortex consist of on its surface and what are these?
Gyrus (pl. gyri) = ridges
Sulcus (sulci) = dips
What are the 2 layers of cerebrum in the brain and what does each section contain?
Grey matter (cerebral cortex) = outermost layer full of cell bodies)
White matter = deep to grey matter, contains many myelinated axons giving the white appearance
What is the order of matter in the spinal cord?
white matter is superficial
Grey matter is deep
Name of the 12 cranial nerves?
I = olfactory nerve
II = optic nerve
III = oculomotor nerve
IV = trochlear nerve
V = trigeminal nerve
VI = abducent nerve
VII = facial nerve
VIII = vestibulocochlear nerve
IX = glossopharyngeal nerve
X = vagus nerve
XI = spinal accessory nerve
XII = hypoglossal nerve
From anterior to posterior, in which order do the cranial nerves attach to the brain?
CN I - XII
(except CN XII is between CN IX and CN X)
Name of the 3 fossae of the cranial cavity?
Anterior cranial fossa
Middle cranial fossa
Posterior cranial fossa
Which cranial nerve passes through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone?
What CN passes through the optic canal?
What cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure?
CN III, IV, V1 (ophthalmic nerve) and VI
What cranial nerve passes through foramen rotundum?
CN V2 (maxillary nerve)
What nerve passes through foramen ovale?
CN V3 (mandibular nerve)
What CNs pass through the internal acoustic meatus?
CN VII and VIII
What nerves pass through jugular foramen?
CN IX, X and XI
What nerve passes through the hypoglossal canal?
Look at position of foraminae on diagram
What foraminae does the spinal cord pass through?
The foramen magnum