Anatomy 12 and 13 - Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy 12 and 13 - Nervous System Deck (113)
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1

What are the 2 anatomical divisions of the nervous system?

CNS (brain, spinal cord)
PNS (all tissues not within the spinal cord)

2

What type of nerves do you get within the PNS? (3)

Spinal nerves (connect with the spinal cord)
Cranial nerves (connect with the brain)
Autonomic nerves (control organs, smooth muscles, glands, can be visceral afferents, sympathetic nerves or parasympathetic nerves)

3

What type of autonomic nerves do you get? (3)

Visceral afferents
Sympathetic nerves
Parasympathetic nerves

4

Parts of a neurone? (4) + function

Dendrites (receive and conduct info towards cell body)
Body (processes information)
Myelin sheath (insulates nerve fibre helping signal travel quicker)
Axon (or nerve fibre - conduct signal away from cell body)

5

What is a collection of nerve cell bodies called in the:CNS?PNS?

CNS= nucleus
PNS= ganglion

6

What are bundles of axons called in the:CNS?PNS?

CNS = tract
PNS = nerve

7

What are nerves?

Bundles of axons (nerve fibres) wrapped in connective tissue which are travelling to or from the same region

8

What can bundles of axons leave a nerve as?

Branches

9

What is a synapse?What happens at the synapse?

The region where one neurone communicates with another neurone in a ganglion in the PNS or in a nucleus in the CNS An electrical signal (AP) becomes a chemical signal (neurotransmitter) then an electrical signal again

10

What are the 3 main parts of the brain?

The cerebrum
The cerebellum
Brain stem

11

What are the 4 main lobes of the cerebrum?

Frontal
Temporal
Parietal
Occipital

12

What is the outer layer of the cerebrum called?

Cerebral neocortex (cortex)

13

What are the 2 halves of the cerebrum called?

Right and left cerebral hemisphere

14

What does the cerebral neocortex consist of on its surface and what are these?

Gyrus (pl. gyri) = ridges
Sulcus (sulci) = dips

15

What are the 2 layers of cerebrum in the brain and what does each section contain?

Grey matter (cerebral cortex) = outermost layer full of cell bodies)
White matter = deep to grey matter, contains many myelinated axons giving the white appearance

16

What is the order of matter in the spinal cord?

white matter is superficial
Grey matter is deep

17

Name of the 12 cranial nerves?

I = olfactory nerve
II = optic nerve
III = oculomotor nerve
IV = trochlear nerve
V = trigeminal nerve
VI = abducent nerve
VII = facial nerve
VIII = vestibulocochlear nerve
IX = glossopharyngeal nerve
X = vagus nerve
XI = spinal accessory nerve
XII = hypoglossal nerve

18

From anterior to posterior, in which order do the cranial nerves attach to the brain?

CN I - XII
(except CN XII is between CN IX and CN X)

19

Name of the 3 fossae of the cranial cavity?

Anterior cranial fossa
Middle cranial fossa
Posterior cranial fossa

20

Which cranial nerve passes through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone?

CN I

21

What CN passes through the optic canal?

CN II

22

What cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure?

CN III, IV, V1 (ophthalmic nerve) and VI

23

What cranial nerve passes through foramen rotundum?

CN V2 (maxillary nerve)

24

What nerve passes through foramen ovale?

CN V3 (mandibular nerve)

25

What CNs pass through the internal acoustic meatus?

CN VII and VIII

26

What nerves pass through jugular foramen?

CN IX, X and XI

27

What nerve passes through the hypoglossal canal?

CN XII

28

Look at position of foraminae on diagram

...

29

What foraminae does the spinal cord pass through?

The foramen magnum

30

What are the 3 parts of the course of a CN?

CNS partIntracranial part
Extracranial part