Flashcards in Public Health Deck (40)
What ar the 5 ways in which infection can be spread?
InhalationIngestionInoculation (direct and indirect)Mother to InfantIntercourse(some things can be spread by more than 1 I)
What is direct inoculation?
Skin or mucous membrane comes into contact with the skin or mucous membrane of an infected person
What is indirect inoculation?
Skin or mucous membrane comes into contact with a contaminated surface
What is the chain of infection?
Pathogenic microorganism - reservoir - means of escape - mode of transmission - means of entry - host susceptibility *breaking the chain at any point interrupts transmission
Where is the reservoir of ebola?
Fruit bats in africa
What are the 2 categories of control of infection precautions and what do they mean?
Standard (all patients all the time)Transmission based (added on for known suspected infection)
What are the 3 types of transmission based precautions?
Contact precautionsDroplet precautionsAirborne precautions
What are the 10 standard control of infection precautions?
Hand hygieneSharps managementClinical wastePPEPatient placementBody fluid spillagesEnvironmental cleanlinessClean equipmentLaundryRespiratory etiquette
What are WHOs 5 moments of hand hygiene?
Before patient contactBefore aseptic taskAfter body fluid exposure riskAfter patient contactAfter contact with patient surroundings
What enzyme do you swab for that gives a general indication of hygiene?
What transmission based precautions are taken for infection spread via either ingestion or inoculation?
What transmission based precaution is taken for infection spread via inhalation droplet?
What transmission based precaution is taken for infection spread via inhalation airborne?
Types of contact precautions?What infections for example are these used for?
GlovesApronSingle room or cohort bayMRSAC. diffNorovirus
Type of droplet precautions?Example of infection this is used for?
Single roomEnsuite toilet/ showerGlovesApronMask (surgical big drops)Eye protectionVaccination where availableInfluenza
Types of airborne precautions?Example of infections it is used for?
Negative pressure roomGown, gloves, apron, eye protectionFFP3 mask (filter mask)Vaccination where availableMeaslesChickenpox
What is epidemiology?
Study of the frequency, distribution and determinants of disease in populations
Is there a vaccine for HIV?
What is the difference between morbidity and mortality?
Mortality refers to the number of people who have died in a population where as morbidity refers to the number of people who are diseased
Equation for mortality rate?
No of deaths / population at risk X 1000
What is the crude death rate?
Mortality rate for the whole population
What does the standardised mortality rate do?
Compares the expected rate with the observed rate
What is the difference between incidence and prevalence?
Incidence is the number of new cases diagnosed in a population where as prevalence refers to the number of people in a population who have the disease at a set time
Incidence rate equation?
Number of new cases of a disease occurring in a population during a specific period time / number of persons exposed to risk of developing the disease during that period of time (usually expressed per 1,000)
Prevalence rate equation?
Number of cases of a disease present in a population at a specific point in time / number of persons at risk of having the disease at a point in time (usually expressed per 1,000)
What are the 3 dimensions of wellbeing?
What are the 2 manifestations of protein energy malnutrition?
Kwashiorkor (oedema) - lack of high-quality proteinMarasmus (low weight/ wasting) - caused by a diet low in both protein and calories
Manifestation of vitamin A deficiency? (2)
BlindnessIncreased severity of diarrhoea and infection
Manifestation of iodine deficiency?
Poor cognitive development