Anatomy 4 and 5 - Joints, Bones and Cartilage Flashcards Preview

1st Year - Principles > Anatomy 4 and 5 - Joints, Bones and Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 4 and 5 - Joints, Bones and Cartilage Deck (108)
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1

What are 6 purposes of bones?

Support
Protection
Calcium metabolism
RBC formation
Mechanical basis for movement and attachment site for skeletal muscles
Salt storage

2

Where is cartilage located?

Where more flexibility and motility is require (joints)

3

How does cartilage obtain oxygen and nutrients?

Via diffusion (avascular)

4

5 shapes of bones?

Long bones
Short bones
Flat bones
Irregular bones
Sesamoid bones

5

Example of a long bone?

Tubular e.g. humerus

6

Example of a short bone?

Cuboidal e.g. in tarsus and carpus

7

Example of flat bone?

Flat bones of cranium (usually have a protective function)

8

Example of an irregular bone?

Have various shapes other than long, short or flat e.g. bones of the face

9

Example of sesamoid bone

Patella (develop in certain tendons ad are found where tendons cross the ends of long bones in the limbs - protect tendons and often change angle of tendons was they pass to there attachments)

10

Look at joint diagram

...

11

What does costo and control mean related to?

Costo = ribs
Condral = cartilage

12

3 subtypes of joints?

Fibrous
cartilagenous
synovial (each is a compromise between mobility and stability e.g. increased mobility = decreased stability)

13

Types of fibrous joints?

Syndesmoses
Sutures

14

What does syndesmoses do?

Unites joints with fibrous sheet (either a ligament or a fibrous membrane)

15

Examples of a syndesmoses?

Interosseous membrane

16

Mobility of syndesmoses?

Partially movable

17

Where are sutures found? Example?

between bones of the skull
Coronal suture
(almost completely obliterate away in adults)

18

Mobility of sutures?

Highly stable

19

What are the names of the wide sutures in the neonatal skull due to incomplete ossification of the cranial bones and the resulting incomplete closure of the sutures - stay open until the baby s approximately 18 months?

Fontanelles

20

Name of the 3 fontanelles?

Anterior
Posterior
Lateral

21

What are cartilaginous joints connected entirely by?

Cartilage (either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage)

22

Mobility of cartilaginous joints?

Allow more movement than fibrous joints but less movement than synovial joints

23

2 types of cartilaginous joints?

Primary cartilaginous (synchondroses)
Secondary cartilaginous (symphyses)

24

What type of cartilage joins synchondroses?

Hyaline cartilage

25

What are the purpose of synchondroses?

permit slight bending during early life and permit growth in the length of a bone by creating temporary unions such as those present during the development of a long bone where the body epiphysis and the shaft are joined by an epiphysial plate -> when full growth has been achieved, the epiphyseal plate converts to bone and epiphysis fuses with the diaphysis

26

How does the strength and stability of secondary compare to primary cartilaginous joints?

secondary = more stable and strong (still has a small amount of flexibility)

27

What type of cartilage makes up secondary cartilaginous joints?

Fibrocartilage

28

Example of a symphysis?

Intervertebral disc

29

Structure of the intervertebral disc?

Outer fibrous annulus fibrosus (fibrous ring of fibrocartilage)
Inner soft nucleus pulposus

30

What type of cartilage covers synovial joints?

Hyaline "articular" cartilage