Pharmacology 6 and 7 - Autonomic Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

1st Year - Principles > Pharmacology 6 and 7 - Autonomic Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology 6 and 7 - Autonomic Pharmacology Deck (97)
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1

Afferent?

Towards the CNS

2

Efferent?

Away from the CNS

3

4 branches of the PNS?

Somatic effent Autonomic (ANS)EntericSomatic and visceral afferent

4

What are the 2 division of the ANS?

SympatheticParasympathetic

5

What is the purpose of the ANS?

To carry output from the CNS to the whole body with the exception of skeletal muscle

6

What allows a degree of copious control of some ANS functions?

Training e.g. urination, defecation

7

What does the parasympathetic ANS coordinate?

the bodies basic homeostatic functions

8

What does the sympathetic ANS coordinate?

The body's response to stress, associated with fight, flight and fright reactions

9

What 2 neurones is a sympathetic/ parasympathetic branch made up of?

Preganglionic neuronePostganglionic neurone

10

What is the transmitter in the preganglionc neurone of the sympathetic ANS?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

11

What is the transmitter in the preganglionic neurone in the parasympathetic ANS?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

12

What is the transmitter in the post-ganglionic neurone in the parasympathetic division?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

13

What is the transmitter in the postganglionic neurone in the sympathetic division?

Usually Noradrenaline (NA)

14

What is the word used to describe neurones that use ACh?

Cholinergic

15

What is the word used to describe neurones that use NA?

Adrenergic

16

Where can sympathetic signals synapse?

In the sympathetic chainIn the prevertebral ganglia

17

What organs sympathetic supply tends to synapse in the sympathetic chain?

signals going to the eye, heart and lungs (above diaphragm)

18

What organs sympathetic supply tends to synapse in pre-vertebral ganglia?

Signals going to the liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidney, intestines and genitourinary tract (below diaphragm)

19

What tissues sympathetic supply doesn't synapse?

Adrenal gland (nerve supply only consists of a preganglionic neurone - transmitter released is ACh)

20

What branch of the ANS has thoracolumbar outflow?

Sympathetic

21

What branch of the ANS has craniosacral outflow?

Parasympathetic

22

Where does the parasympathetic axons leave the CNS?

Via cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and XVia sacral spinal nerves

23

What organs does the parasympathetic outflow supply?

Parasympathetic ganglia in head = Lacrimal gland and salivary glandsVagus nerve = organs of the neck, chest and abdomen as far as the midgutSacral spinal nerves "carry" parasympathetic axons to the hind-gut, pelvis and perineum

24

Where are parasympathetic ganglia?

Usually in the target organs (discrete ganglia exist in the head and beck)

25

What does sympathetic stimulation at heart cause? (2)

Increases heart rateIncreases force of contraction

26

What does parasympathetic stimulation of the heart cause?(1)

Decreases heart rate

27

What does sympathetic stimulation of the lungs cause? (2)

Relaxes bronchi Decreases mucus production (decreasing airway resistance)

28

What does parasympathetic stimulation of the lungs cause? (2)

Constricts bronchiStimulates mucus production

29

How does sympathetic nervous system cause the relaxation of bronchi?

Via release of adrenaline

30

Effect of sympathetic stimulation on the GI tract? (2)

Reduces motilityConstricts sphincters