Flashcards in Pathology 9 - Neoplasia 3 Deck (36)
What are the 4 cancer causing groups of genes?
Oncogenes - turn these up (cause mutation from photo-oncogene to oncogene)Tumour supressor genes - turn these offTurn off genes that stop cells dying = evasion of apoptosisBreak the spell checker genes = allows accumulation of spelling mistakes in oncogenes, tumour suppressors and those that avoid apoptosis (permits progression through the cell cycle even with mistakes)
How does cancer develop?
You need 2 mutations in a gene for cancer to develop (2 hit hypothesis)Once you have the 2 hits the cells will begin to rapidly proliferate and will accumulate more and more mutations until they become a self sustaining growth *the 2 it hypothesis refers to tumour suppressor genes
What are the 3 key stages in the development of cancer?
What is initiation?
The 1st mutation is acquired (often in one of the group of 4)
What is promotion?
Further accumulation of mutationsAdditive effectIncreased growthOften results in a "pre-malignant" phase - dysplasia
what is progression?
Cell has developed mutations that allow it to grow in na autonomous fashionUnregulated abnormal growthCells have the ability to invade connective tissue and blood vesselsMalignancy has now been achieved
What are the 3 categories of growth factors?
Receptors with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity7 transmembrane G protein-coupled receptorsReceptors without intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity
What is the MAPK/ERK pathway?
a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell
What lesions in the ERK-signalling pathway can cause cancer? (4)
ERGF over expression (most cancers)RAS mutation RAF mutationMyc mutation(we can use "personalised" drugs that specifically target these mutations)*these are all photo-oncogenes
What tyrosine kinase receptors are sometimes mutated in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) and leukemias?What therapeutic agent is used to treat this?
C-KIT (growth receptor)Imatinib
What is RAS?
RAS is a family of related proteins that are involved in transmitting signals within cellswhen switched on, RAS turns n other proteins, which ultimately turns on genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survivalas a result, mutations in RAS can lead to the production of permissively active RAS proteins (GTP binding proteins)Proto-oncogene
What type of cancers commonly have RAS mutations? (6)
What is BRAF?
A downstream of receptor and RAF - it is a photo-oncogene involved in the ERK-signalling pathwayProto-oncogene
What cancers are associated with (B)RAF?
Melanoma (50% are RAF mutated)Some colonic malignancies
What is an inhibitor of BRAF that is licensed for melanoma treatment?
What is Myc?
A nuclear transpiration factor that promotes growth - DNA replicationPro-oncogene
What cancers are commonly affected by Myc mutation? (3)
LymphomaNeuroblastomaSmall cell carcinoma of the lungBurkitt lymphoma
What is the most common mutated kinase receptor in cancer?
What pathway is APC a part of?
Canonical Wnt Pathway
Apart from APC, what other protein in the canonical WnT pathway can become mutated causing cancer?What cancers is this commonly mutated in?
Beta-cateninOvarian cancerEndometrial cancerSarcomas
What does a mutation in JAK2 commonly occur in?
What type of proteins are often prefixed with "p"?
Tumour supressor genes
What is the most commonly mutated protein across all cancers?
p53 - tumour supressor gene
What does p53 do?
Senses DNA abnormalities at G1 and pauses the cell cycle - increases levels of p21 which is a CDK inhibitor If DNA is repaired, p53 restarts the cell cycleIf repair is not possible, p53 initiates apoptosis
What is CDK activated by?
What cycle does p53 initiate apoptosis by?
What Von-Hippel Lindau disease?
a disease which results from a mutation in the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor gene which causes multiple tumours to develop (mostly renal cancers)- loss of a functioning VHL gene increases levels of angiogenic growth factors
What does PTEN do?
Increased transcription of p27 - p27 blocks CDKs and cell cycle progression and therefore inhibits P13K/AKT pathwayTherefore a mutation in this causes proliferation in an uncontrolled manner
What are 4 examples of DNA repair genes?
MLH1, MLH2, PMS1, PMS2 - mutations in these can lead to the likes of HNPCC and Muir Torres