Pathology 10 and 11 - Neoplasia 4 and 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology 10 and 11 - Neoplasia 4 and 5 Deck (48)
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1

What are the 4 main points that pathologists want to find out from a cancer resection?

Is it out?What is it?How far has it gone?How bad is it? (how malignant is it behaving)

2

What does the presence of a capsule around a neoplasia indicate?

It is slow growing - slow growing usually = benign (the body has tried to fence it off from surrounding tissue)

3

Are malignant tumours normally homogenous or heterogenous?

Heterogenous - different areas of the tumour look different

4

What is the N:C ratio?

Nuclear: cytoplasmic ratioA ratio of the size of the nucleus compared to the cytoplasm

5

N:C ratio in cancer?

High

6

What type of cells do cells originate from?

stem cells (cells then receive various signals to mature into a specific cell type with a specific function - they differentiate)

7

Poorly differentiated cells?

Difficult to tell what the cell of origin is

8

What does hyperchromasia mean?

Increased pigment - increased staining capacity - usually highly active cells

9

What are the main groups of cells that cancer forms in? (4)

EpithelialMesenchymal (connective tissue)Haematopoietic (cells that circulate blood)Others - melanocytic, brain (glial)

10

What tissues do carcinomas affect

Epithelium

11

Benign tumour of glandular epithelium?

Adenoma

12

Cancerous tumour of glandular epithelium?

Adenocarcinoma

13

Benign tumour of squamous epithelium?

Papilloma

14

Malignant tumour of squamous epithelium?

Squamous cell carcinoma

15

Malignant tumour of bladder?

Transitional cell carcinoma - sometimes called urothelial cell carcinoma

16

What is mesenchymal tissue?

Connective tissues e.g. bone, cartilage, peripheral nerves, fat, fibrous tissue, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, etc.

17

What are mesenchymal malignancies called?

Sarcomas

18

Benign tumour of fat?

Lipoma

19

Malignant tumour of fat?

Liposarcoma (e.g. retroperitoneum, testicular - rare)

20

Benign tumour of bone?

Osteoma

21

Malignant tumour of bone?

Osteosarcoma

22

Benign tumour of cartilage?

Enchondroma

23

Malignant tumour of cartilage?

Chondrosarcoma

24

Benign tumour of skeletal muscle?

Rabdomyoma

25

Malignant tumour of skeletal muscle?

Rabdomyosarcoma

26

Benign tumour of smooth muscle?

Leiomyoma

27

Benign tumour of smooth muscle?

Leiomyosarcoma

28

Benign tumour of nerves? (2)

Neurofibroma, schwannoma

29

Malignant tumour of nerves?

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour

30

Benign tumour of blood vessels?

Haemangioma, etc.