Several conditions contribute to a member's conformity to _______________.
Task Demands: Conformity to group norms is greater in _____________ situations, highly complex situations, situations involving a problem that has ________________, and when group members must work together to achieve a common goal.
- No solution
Group Characteristics: Conformity increases as the consensus of group members ______________, and the presence of even a single dissenter can significantly ___________ conformity. A high degree of conformity is also likely when norms are enforced through ____________________ and when group members are perceived as being highly credible and trustworthy.
- Close supervision
Participation in Defining Norms: Members conform more to a group's norms when they have __________________. By participating in their development, members understand the norms better, feel more _______________ with them, and are more likely to perceive the norms as equitable.
- Helped define them
A member who violates group norms is ordinarily faced with disapproval or rejection; however, the exception to this rule is that a person may occasionally be allowed to violate norms when he/she has gained ___________, status, and ___________ by functioning ________________ in the group, serving as the group leader, or consistently conforming to group norms in the past. This is called accumulating _____________________.
- Idiosyncrasy credits
The following 3 factors have been found to affect group cohesiveness:
- Group size
The optimal group size depends on the nature of the ___________, but, in general, groups are most cohesive (and most effective) when they include ___ to ___ members.
- 5 to 10
Groups whose members are ______________ in terms of SES, interests, values, attitudes, abilities, and personality characteristics are more likely to be cohesive.
Cohesiveness is maximized when members ___________________ goal and norm-setting, and when members must depend on one another to achieve ____________ goals. Cohesiveness is also increased when members believe that participation in the group will help them achieve their ________________, and when the group has a history of successful goal achievement.
- Participate in
- Personal goals
When group cohesiveness is high, the group's level of performance depends on whether ________________-related norms are high or low; when cohesiveness is low, norms have ______ impact on the group's performance.
The positive effects of cohesiveness on performance tend to be strongest for tasks that require _____ levels of interaction and cooperation among group members.
Steiner (1976) describes ___ types of group tasks.
On an ___________________ task, the individual contributions of group members are added together to form the group product.
When performing a ______________ task, the inputs of group members are averaged together to create a single product.
For a ________________ task, group members must select the solution or decision offered by one of the group members (ideally, that of the best member).
When working on a _______________ task, the group's overall performance is limited by that of the worst-performing member.
On a ______________ task, group members decide how to combine the contributions of individual members.
In terms of productivity, group performance is _______________ to individual performance for additive and compensatory tasks; is ___________ the performance of the best member on disjunctive tasks, and is ____________ the performance of the worst member on conjunctive tasks.
- Equal to
- Equal to
For ______________ tasks, group productivity depends on how effectively the contributions of group members are combined.
Another factor that affects group productivity is group ______________: Groups that are homogenous with regard to knowledge, skills, and certain other characteristics are likely to be more cohesive and perform better on simple tasks and tasks that require cooperation and quick action.
Groups that are _________________ tend to perform better on complex tasks and tasks that require creativity and/or complementary skills and information.
_______________ is one of the potential negative outcomes of participation in a group, and occurs when an individual exerts less effort as a group member than he/she would have exerted if working alone.
Social loafing is most likely when members know their contributions __________________ or believe that ______________ do not depend on their effort (which is most likely when the task is ________________).
- Will not be recognized
_____________________ occurs when the mere presence of others increases task performance and is most likely to occur when the task is simple and well-learned.
___________________ occurs when the presence of others decreases performance and is more likely when the task is complex or new (unlearned).
The changes in a groups challenges, goals, and interactions over time can be described in terms of ___ changes, according to Tuckman and Jensen (1977).
During the _____________ stage members become acquanted and attempt to establish "ground rules."
The ______________ stage is characterized by conflict as group members resist the control of the group leader(s).
The ________________ stage begins when group members accept the group, establish ground rules and individual roles within the group, develop close relationships with eachother, and begin to work together to achieve group goals.
During the __________________ stage, group members have accepted each other's strengths and weaknesses, are clear about their own roles, and are focused on "getting the job done."