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Flashcards in Organizational Psychology: Historical Background Deck (9)
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1

________________________ was developed by Frederick Taylor (1911) who applied the scientific method to the study of job productivity.  He is probably best known for his ____________________ studies, which he used to identify how workers could complete their tasks in less time and with greater efficiency.

  • Scientific Management
  • Time and motion

2

As described by Taylor, scientific management involves:

a) Scientifically _________________ jobs into their component parts and then standardizing those parts

b) Scientifically selecting, ______________, and placing workers in jobs for which they are mentally and physicall suited

c) Fostering ________________ between supervisors and workers to minimize deviation from scientific methods of work

d) Having managers and workers assume responsibility for their own share of their work.

  • Analyzing
  • Training
  • Cooperation

3

Taylor believed that workers are motivated primarily by _______________, and advocated for a differential piece-rate system that _______________ to those who exceed the standard level of performance.

  • Money
  • Pay more

4

An important factor leading to the development of an alternative to scientific management that placed greater emphasis on worker needs/motives/relationships was the research conducted by ______________ and colleagues at the __________________ of the Western Electric Company between 1927-1932.

  • Elton Mayo
  • Hawthorne Plant

5

The improvement in job performance resulting from psychological and social factors related to participation in a research study is referred to as the _______________________.

Hawthorne Effect.

6

Other experiments at the Hawthorne plant found that _______________________ have a significant impact on worker productivity.  Mayo found that production above or below the informal norm resulted in social pressure to conform.

Informal Work Group Norms.

7

The differences between the scientific management and human relations approches are reflected in McGregor's (1960) distinction between ________________ and ________________ managers.

  • Theory X
  • Theory Y

8

______________ managers believe that employees dislike work and avoid it whenever possible and, as a result, must be directed and controlled.

Theory X.

9

_______________ managers view work as being "as natural as play" and assume that employees are capable of self-control and self-direction.

Theory Y.