________________________ was developed by Frederick Taylor (1911) who applied the scientific method to the study of job productivity. He is probably best known for his ____________________ studies, which he used to identify how workers could complete their tasks in less time and with greater efficiency.
- Scientific Management
- Time and motion
As described by Taylor, scientific management involves:
a) Scientifically _________________ jobs into their component parts and then standardizing those parts
b) Scientifically selecting, ______________, and placing workers in jobs for which they are mentally and physicall suited
c) Fostering ________________ between supervisors and workers to minimize deviation from scientific methods of work
d) Having managers and workers assume responsibility for their own share of their work.
Taylor believed that workers are motivated primarily by _______________, and advocated for a differential piece-rate system that _______________ to those who exceed the standard level of performance.
- Pay more
An important factor leading to the development of an alternative to scientific management that placed greater emphasis on worker needs/motives/relationships was the research conducted by ______________ and colleagues at the __________________ of the Western Electric Company between 1927-1932.
- Elton Mayo
- Hawthorne Plant
The improvement in job performance resulting from psychological and social factors related to participation in a research study is referred to as the _______________________.
Other experiments at the Hawthorne plant found that _______________________ have a significant impact on worker productivity. Mayo found that production above or below the informal norm resulted in social pressure to conform.
Informal Work Group Norms.
The differences between the scientific management and human relations approches are reflected in McGregor's (1960) distinction between ________________ and ________________ managers.
- Theory X
- Theory Y
______________ managers believe that employees dislike work and avoid it whenever possible and, as a result, must be directed and controlled.
_______________ managers view work as being "as natural as play" and assume that employees are capable of self-control and self-direction.