A strong ______________________ has been linked to higher levels of job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.
Several classification systems have been proposed for describing _________________. One of the best known is _______________ (1993), which distinguishes between five dimensions.
- National culture
__________________ refers to the extent to which people accept an unequal distribution of power.
___________________ refers to the willingness or ability of people to tolerate ambiguity or uncertainty.
_________________ is the extent to which individuals or closely-knit social structures (e.g., famililies) are the basis of the social system.
_________________ refers to the value placed on assertiveness, independence, and competitiveness.
___________________ is the extent to which people focus on the future versus the past and present.
Schein (1992) distinguishes between ___ levels of organizational culture.
Schein's first level is made up of _________________ and includes the company's dress code, stories and rituals, and annual reports.
Schein's second level consists of _______________________, and includes the organization's norms, goals, and ideologies.
Espoused values and beliefs.
Schein's third (deepest) level is composed of _______________________, which are unconscious, taken-for-granted perceptions, beliefs, thoughts, and emotions.
Basic underlying assumptions.
According to Schein, one of the functions of organizational culture is to provide _____________ and ______________ and thereby reduce _____________ among organizational members that would otherwise be caused by their uncertainty about current and future events.
Schein conceptualizes underlying assumptions as _____________________ that are "for the group what defense mechanisms are for the individual."
Cognitive defense mechanisms.
________________________ refers to "the extent to which the values held by specific individuals match those of the organizations culture.
Person-Organization (P-O) Fit.
A good P-O appears to have a _________ impact on employee productivity, but is _____________ with greater job satisfaction, motivation, and organizational commitment, lower levels of stress and turnover.
A good P-O fit is achieved primarily through _____________ and ____________ processes.