Training program development begins with a _________________ (a.k.a. a needs analysis), which consists of four elements:
1) An ____________ analysis to identify organizational goals and determine if it is training that is needed to achieve those goals
2) A ____________ analysis to identify what must be done to perform the job successfully
3) A ____________ analysis to determine which employees require training and what knowledge, skills, and abilities they need to acquire
4) A ____________ analysis to identify the training needs of different groups of workers (e.g., older versus younger workers)
- Needs assessment
- Task (job)
Immediate and ongoing ___________________ to participants about their learning is essential for effective training.
__________________ promotes automaticity (the ability to perform a behavior or recall information quickly with little or no conscious attention) and occurs when an individual practices a new skill or studies material beyond the point of mastery.
Because ____________ learning is more effective than passive reading or listening, frequent opportunities to apply information or practice skills should be provided during treatment.
Practice is most effective when it is _________________ over time rather than massed at one time, and this is especially true for tasks involving motor skills or memorization.
___________ learning involves presenting and practicing the entire task at once, while __________ learning involves initially presenting and practicing the parts of the task and subsequently combining the parts. ____________ learning is most effective for tasks that are low in complexity but high in organization, while ________ learning is most effective for tasks that are highly complex but low in organization.
A training program should result in _______________ (improvements in actual on-the-job performance), which occurs when the following conditions are met:
a) _____________ are provided (i.e., the degree of similarity between aspects of the learning and performance environments is maximized)
b) General rules and principles are taught in addition to specific skills
c) Training includes exposure to a variety of examples and other relevant stimuli
d) Skills are subsequently reinforced and supported on the job
- Positive transfer
- Identical elements
Of the various methods of training, ____________________ are the most widely used.
___________________ involves having trainees perform several jobs over time and is ordinarily used to train managers, while _______________ entails teaching workers tasks and activities that are performed in several similar jobs.
- Job rotation
__________________ provide more opportunities to focus on and practice specific job elements, to provide supplemental information, and to use professional trainers, and they have sufficient flexibility to tolerate errors.
_________________ makes use of a physical replication or simulation of the work environment and is useful when on-the-job training would be too costly or dangerous.
_______________ is based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, which proposes that learning is facilitated when a person observes a skilled worker perform the target behavior and is then provided with opportunities to practice the behavior.
Kirkpatrick (1976) distinguishes between ___ levels of criteria that can be used to assess the effectiveness of training programs.
____________ criteria evaluate participant's reactions to the program and are not necessarily linked to job performance.
_______________ criteria evaluate how much participants actully learned from training.
______________ criteria assess participants' change in performance when they return to the job.
_____________ criteria assess the value of the training program in terms of the organization's goals.
While ___________ criteria are usually the most important, they are also the most difficult to develop and are infrequently used.
________________ is used in organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs as well as the other programs and procedures. It involves using a mathematical equation to derive an estimate of the program's financial return on investment.
The following equation is used in utility analysis: U = T x N x d x SD - N x C, where:
- U =
- T =
- N =
- d =
- SD =
- C =
- U = Utility (measured in $)
- T = # of years duration of the program's effects on job performance
- N = # of people trained
- d = Effect size of training program in standard deviation units
- SD = Standard deviation of job performance for untrained employees (in $)
- C = Per person cost of training
A __________________ is conducted while a training program is being developed, and its results are used to make necessary modifications to the program before it is implemented.
A ____________________ is conducted after a program has been implemented in order to assess its outcomes and may include determining how much trainees have learned and the program's cost effectiveness.