________________________ refers to the interventions that are used to facilitate planned change.
According to Lewin's (1951) Force Field Analysis of Planned Change, organizations continually respond to forces that either promote or resist change. Forces that promote change are "_______________" and include pressure for change from mngmt. and new competition. Forces that resist change are "_________________" and include employee hostility and apathy and malfunctioning equipment.
- Driving forces
- Restraining forces
Lewin's Stage 1 - _________________: Occurs when the need for change is recognized and steps are taken to make members of the organization receptive to change.
Lewin's Stage 2 - _________________: Involves moving the organization in the new direction and includes helping employees acquire new behaviors, values, and attitudes.
Lewins Stage 3 - ____________________: Entails supporting the changes that have been made to help stabilize the organization at a new state of equilibrium.
Nadler's (1988) _________ Model of _________________ proposes that effective organizational change requires addressing four factors:
a) Informal organizational elements (communication patterns, leadership)
b) Formal organizational elements (formal structures and processes)
c) Individual characteristics of employees and managers
d) Characteristics of employee and managerial tasks
- Planned Change.
Bonus: Change in any one factor will cause change in the other factors.
Organizational Develeopment (OD) interventions rely on ________________ principles and techniques to facilitate planned change.
Most OD interventions share the following characteristics:
a) Adoption of a _________ (organization-wide) perspective
b) Incorporation of a systems approach and ___________ philosophy
c) Commtiment and support of top management
d) Focus on individuals and social relationships
e) Use of a ______________ (catalyst) who guides the change process
f) A view of OD as an ongoing and long-term process
__________________ (QWL) programs are designed to humanize work and the work environment. They emphasize employee empowerment, are traditionally focused on lower-level employees, and emphasize worker participation and involvement in all stage of decision-making.
Quality of Work Life.
A __________________ (QC) consists of a small voluntary group of employees who work together on a particular job and meet regularly to discuss job-related problems and solutions. Representatives of the QC then present their solutions to management.
______________________ (SMWTs) are autonomous work groups whose members are trained in the skills needed to effectively perform the group task. They are made up of employees who work together as a unit, but functions include making hiring, budget, and other decisions previously made by managers. Leadership typically rotates.
Self-Managed Work Teams.
_____________________ refers to activities designed to assist members of an organization help themselves by improving their ability to perceive, understand, and alter the processes that are undermining their interactions with one another. A consultant observes employees and provides them with direct feedback; the focus is on behaviors related to communication, leadership, decision-making, conflict resolution, and roles.
________________ focuses on employee attitudes, opinions, and perceptions, and involves 3 basic steps: ____________ collection, data feedback, and __________ planning.
- Survey feedback
______________________ (TQM) focuses on customer satisfaction, employee involvement and empowerment, continuous improvement in the quality of goods and services, and ongoing measurement of performance in order to identify problems. It emphasizes teamwork and decision-making at all levels of the organization. Elements include organizing around processes rather than tasks, and adopting stringent work standards.
Total Quality Management.
The introduction of TQM usually requires a change in organizational structure from a traditional _______________ managerial hierarchy to a flatter _________________ structure that has parallel work teams and fewer managers. The primary reason for instances in which this method is not successful is _______________________.
- Incorrect implementation
An ___________________ is a member of the organization, is already familiar with the company's culture, norms, and power structure, and has a personal interest in the change effort.
Internal Change Agent.
An _____________________ is often able to see the situation more objectively, bring a new perspective, is typically better received by members of the organization due to impartiality, to have greater influence and status, and to be more willing to take risks.
External Change Agent.
_______________________ are useful for identifying attitudes, values, and beliefs and for obtaining information from a large number of individuals.
Questionnaires and Surveys.
_________________ can be used to obtain a wide range of information and are the only technique that allows two-way communication.
____________________ is most helpful for obtaining data on overt behaviors and interactions.
____________________ provide information on organizational productivity and the performance of individual employees.
Secondary (archival) sources.
As defined by Chin & Benne (1976), strategies for ___________________ can be classified in terms of 3 basic types.
Overcoming resistance to change.
The ___________________ strategy is based on the assumption that people are basically rational and will act in accord with their self-interest once they have been provided with the necessary information (i.e., they will not resist change once they see that they will benefit from it). This is most effective when resistance is due to lack of knowledge.
The ___________________ strategy is based on the premise that peer pressure and sociocultural norms are potent forces of change. Group discussions about ways to accomplish change can be useful in overcoming resistance.
The __________________ strategy involves using power and legitimate authority to coerce employees to comply with plans for change. It can take the form of rewards or punishment.
Theorists interested in the notion of fairness distinguish between 3 types of ___________________.
_______________ justice refers to the fairness of the way in which a procedure or policy is implemented.
____________________ justice refers to the fairness of the outcomes of an organizational procedure or policy.
____________________ justice refers to how people feel about the quality and content of person-to-person interactions.