Herbert Simon (1960, 1992) distinguishes between two models of individual decision-making: the ________________ model and the __________________ model.
- Bounded Rationality (Administrative) Model
The __________________ model proposes that decision-makers maximize benefits by systematically searching for and considering all possible alternatives before selecting the optimal one. This model assumes that a decision-maker has comlete information about all possible alternatives and is able to process the information in an accurate, unbiased way.
The _________________________ model proposes that limited capabilities, time, and resources and other constraints force decision-makers to be less than totally rational. As a result, decision-makers consider solutions as they become available and then select the first solution that meets the minimum criteria of acceptability.
Bounded Rationality (Administrative) Model.
Group decisions tend to be superior to individual when groups are composed of individuals with ____________________ skills and when the task is ___________.
______________ was described by Janis (1982) as a suspension of critical thinking that can occur in highly cohesive groups, especially when the leader is highly directive and the group is working under conditions of high stress.
According to Janis, groups engaging in groupthink are characterized by:
a) An illusion of _________________ and unanimity
b) Collective _______________
c) Unquestioned morality
d) Excessive negative stereotyping
e) Strong pressure to ____________
f) Self-appointed "mindguards"
g) Self-censorship of _______________ views
_______________________ is the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme (more conservative or risky) in the direction of the views initially held by group members than decisions that would have been generated by individual members alone.
___________________ has been attributed to several factors, including the effects of social comparison, mutual reinforcement, and diffusion of responsibility.
Osborn (1957) argued that the creativity of group decisions can be enhanced with __________________, which involves:
a) Encouraging group members to verbalize all ideas that come to mind regardless of how absurd they may seem
b) Requiring members to refrain from evaluating each other's ideas until after the session is over
The research on brainstorming _________ been very supporting.
While _______________ in organizations can lead to improved productivity by increasing worker motivation, creativity, and problem-solving, and fostering positive change, ___________________ can interfere with communication and performance, create a negative climate, and have other negative consequences.
- Functional conflict
- Dysfunctional conflict
Formal methods of resolving conflict include: _________________, mediation, and _________________.
_________________ is probably the most common method for resolving conflict in organizations. Opposite sides exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions. The effectiveness of this depends on several factors, the most important being the parties view of the situation as being a "win-win" vs. a "win-lose."
In ______________, a neutral third party uses various tactics to facilitate voluntary agreement between the disputants. However, this third party has no formal power and cannot impose a settlement upon the parties. This party's role is to clarify the issues and open lines of communication.
Mediation involves 3 basic phases:
- ____________: Clarifying ground rules and collecting information.
- ____________: Posing issues and generating alternatives.
- ____________: Pressuring the parties to reach an agreement.
- Setting the stage
- Problem solving
- Achieving an agreement
An _________________ has more authority than a mediator, and controls both the process and outcome of conflict resolution.
In ________________ arbitration, the two sides agree in advance to accept the settlement recommended by the arbitrator.
In ________________ arbitration, the parties agree only to the arbitration process.
In ______________ arbitration, the arbitrator is free to choose any settlement solution.
In _____________ arbitration, the arbitrator must select one of the final offers made by the disputants.