_____________ proposed a life-space, life-span theory of career development that integrates the following concepts: Self-concept, life span, and life space.
An individual's _____________ is a product of inherited aptitudes, physical makeup, and social learning experiences. It changes over the life span, but becomes more stable with increasing age. Job satisfaction, stability, and success depend on the extent to which a job matches this.
Career development occurs over the life span during 5 stages:
- ______________ (0-14)
- Exploration (14-25)
- ______________ (25-45)
- Maintenance (45-65)
- ______________ (65 and over)
Super uses the term ______________________ (or, in adults, _________________) to describe a person's ability to cope with the developmental tasks of his/her life stage. Factors that contribute to this include awareness of the need to plan ahead, decision-making skills, knowledge and use of information resources, and familiarity with information about occupations.
- Career maturity
- Career adaptability
Career maturity is assessed with the _____________________ (CDI).
Career Development Inventory.
_____________ refers to the various social roles an individual adopts at different points during his/her life.
The ________________, one of several pictures Super uses to depict elements of his theory, relates an individual's major roles to the five life stages and is useful for helping a career counselee recognize the impact of current and future roles and stages on career planning.
_______________ (1985) emphasizes the importance of matching an individual's personality to the characteristics of the work environment and proposes that a person will be more satisfied, will stay on the job longer, and will be more productive when there is a good personality-environment fit.
Holland distinguishes between six basic personality/work environment types:
- R = ______________
- I = ______________
- A = ______________
- S = _____________
- E = ______________
- C = _____________
According to Holland, personality-environment match is most accurate as a predictor of job-related outcomes when the individual exhibits a high degree of ______________ - i.e., has clear interests as evidenced by a high score on one of six types and low scores on the others.
Roe (1972) was influenced by the work of __________________, and her theory of career development links a person's occupational choice to his/her basic needs and personality.
According to Roe, needs and personality are the result of a combination of genetic factors and early childhood experiences, especially __________________.
Roe distinguished between 3 types of parent-child relationships:
- ____________________ (overprotective or overdemanding)
- ____________________ (neglect or rejection)
- ____________________ (Loving and casual)
She claimed that the nature of a person's early relationship with his/her parents produces a basic orientation of either "toward other people" or "not toward other people."
- Emotional concentration
Roe also categorized occupations in terms of 8 basic fields:
- Business Contact
- General Cultural
- Arts and Entertainment
And ___ levels of complexity that range from unskilled to professional and managerial.
Tiedeman and O'Hara's (1963) ___________________ (CD-M) model describes vocational identity development as an ongoing process that is tied to ego identity development (which they describe in terms of Erikson's psychosocial stages) and that involves the repetitive processes of differentiation and integration. The model distinguishes between ___ phases of the career decision-making process.
- Career Decision-Making Model
The ________________ Phase of the Career Decision-Making Model consists of four stages:
In this phase, the individual explores different career possibilities and eventually makes a career choice.
The _______________________ Phase of the Career Decision-Making Model consists of 3 stages:
During this phase, the individual enters the work situation and eventually becomes an established member of the workforce and achieves a balance between the demands of work and his/her own needs.
Implementation and Adjustment Phase.
Krumboltz's (1996) _________________ theory of career decision-making is based on reinforcement theory and the work of Bandura, and proposes that "the maximum career development of all individuals requires each individual to be exposed to the widest array of learning experiences, regardless of race, gender or ethnic origin."
Social Learning Theory.
According to Krumboltz, a person's career decisions are influenced by four factors:
- ______________ and special abilities (e.g., artistic and athletic skills)
- Environmental conditions and events (e.g., job opportunities, technological developments, and neighborhood/community influences)
- Learning experiences that include both ______________ learning (learning resulting from rewards and punishments) and _______________ learning (learning due to classical conditioning)
- Task approach skills (e.g., performance expectations, work habits, cognitive processes, and emotional responses) that are the result of an interaction between the other 3 factors
- Genetic endowment
In contrast to more traditional theories, Krumboltz's approach does NOT focus on matching an individual's characteristics to job characteristics, but, instead, on promoting ________________ and self-________________, which enable the individual to respond to changes in work requirements.
- Continual learning
Krumboltz's ____________________ (CBI) is used to identify irrational, illogical beliefs that affect an individual's career-related decisions.
Career Belief Inventory.
Brousseau and Driver's (1996) Decision ________________________ (DDC) model emphasizes a person's career concept, which refers to how the person envision his/her ideal career path.
Decision Dynamics Career Model.
The Decision Dynamics Career Model distinguishes between 4 career concepts that vary in terms of 3 dimensions:
- ______________ of job change
- Direction of change
- ___________ of change in job content
A person with a _________ career concept views his/her career as involving a progressive upward movement in terms of authority and responsibility.
A person with an ___________ career concept views his/her career as involving a lifelong commitment to an occupational specialty and focuses on developing his/her knowledge and skills within that specialty.
A person with a ____________ career concept envisions his/her career as involving periodic moves across occupational specialties or disciplines.
A person with a _____________ career concept considers the ideal career as involving frequent job changes, often to jobs in unrelated fields.
Dawis and Lofquist's (1984) Theory of ____________________________ (TWA) describes satisfaction, tenure, and other job outcomes as the result of the correspondence between the worker and his/her work environment on two dimensions - satisfaction and satisfactoriness.
A worker's ________________ with the job depends on the degree to which the characteristics of the job correspond to his or her needs and values, while the worker's __________________ depends on the extent to which the worker's skills correspond to the skill demands of the job.
The __________________ (WVA) is based on the TWA and is used to help individuals identify occupations that fit their needs and values. It assesses 21 work needs that correspond to six work values:
- Working Conditions
Work Values Assessment.