Research at Ohio State University in the 1940s and 1950s identified two basic and independent dimensions of leadership behavior: ____________ and ____________.
- Initiating structure
__________________ refers to the amount of warmth, concern, rapport, and support displayed by the leader. Leader's high in this are person-oriented.
____________________ refers to the extent to which a leader defines, directs, and structures his or her own role and the roles of subordinates. Leaders high in this are task-oriented.
Eagly and Johnson's (1990) meta-analysis of research on gender differences in leadership in indicated that male and female leaders _________ differ in terms of consideration and initiating structure, but found that ___________ leaders are more likely than ___________ leaders to rely on a democratic (participative) decision-making style.
- Do not
Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) concluded that successful leaders exhibit the following characteristics:
- Honesty and integrity
- _____________ motivation
- High levels of ___________ ability
- Knowledge of the business
In their meta-analysis of the research on the Big Five personality traits, Judge et al. (2002) found that _______________ was the strongest predictor of effective leadership.
A meta-analysis of the research by Judge, Colbert, and Ilies (2004) found an average correlation of ___ between leader effectiveness and their intellectual ability.
Fiedler's (1967) __________________ proposes that leadership effectiveness is the result of an interaction between the leader's style and the favorableness of the situation.
A leader's style is considered to be fixed and is assessed with Fiedler's ________________ (LPC) scale: a ____________ LPC leader (one who describes a least preferred coworker in favorable terms) is relationship-oriented and is concerned primarily with maintaining supportive and trusting relationships with subordinates. A ____________ LPC leader (one who describes a least preferred coworker in unfavorable terms) is task-oriented and is most interested in goal achievement.
- Least Preferred Coworker
_______________ refers to the amount of influence and power a leader has. It is determined by:
a) The nature of the leader's relationship with subordinates (when relationships are _______________, the leader has greater influence)
b) The nature of the task (the more ________________ the task, the greater the leader's influence)
c) The leader's position power (the greater the number of ______________ the leader can use, the more influence she has)
- Situational Favorableness
- Highly structured
According to Fiedler, the relationship between a leader's style and the favorableness of the situation is curvilinear, with _______ LPC leaders performing best when the situation allows them very little or a great deal of influence, and _______ LPC leaders performing best in situations that allow moderate levels of influence.
___________________ (CR) Theory is an extension and modification of Fiedler's Contingency theory, and proposes that the impact of a leader's intelligence and experience on the leader's performance is moderated by the stressfulnes of the situation, which is affected by the nature of the task and characteristics of the subordinates.
Cognitive Resource theory.
Under _____ levels of stress, a leader's intelligence is more predictive of performance than is his/her experience; however, under ______ levels of stress, a leader's experience is more predictive of performance than his/her intelligence.
House's (1971) _________________ (P-G) Theory proposes that an effective leader is one who can help carve a path for subordinates that allows them to fulfill personal goals through the achievement of group and organizational goals.
According to House, a leader's primary functions are:
- Clarifying ___________ and the paths that will lead to their achievement
- Providing ___________ to subordinates through support and attention to their needs.
A leader can adopt either a ___________, supportive, ____________, or achievement-oriented leadership style to perform these functions, with the appropriate style depending on the characteristics of the ______________ and the __________________.
- Work environment
Hersey and Blanchard's (1974) _____________________ (SL) model distinguishes between four leadership styles that are each characterized by a different combination of task- and relationship-orientation. It also proposes that the appropriate style depends on the subordinate's __________________, which is determined by a combination of ability and willingness to accept responsibility.
- Situational leadership
- Job maturity
A ____________ leader has a high task, low relationship style and is most effective for employees who are low in both ability and willingness.
A _____________ leader has a high task, high relationship style and is most effective for employees with low ability and high willingness.
A ________________ leader has a low task, high relationship style and is most effective for employees with high ability and low willingness.
A ______________ leader has a low task, low relationship style and is most effective for employees who are high in both ability and willingness.
The __________________________ (N[D-M]) Model (Vroom & Jago, 1988) focuses on a leader's decision-making style and distinguishes between five basic decision strategies that vary in terms of the degree to which employees participate in decision-making.
Normative (Decision-Making) model.
__ (_______________): The leader makes decisions alone.
___ (_______________): The leader seeks input from employees but then makes the final decision him/herself.
___ (___________): The leader explains the problem to each employee on a one-to-one basis, but his/her decision may or may not reflect input from the employees.
___ (_______________): The leader explains the problem to employees as a group, but his/her decision may or may not reflect input from the employees.
___ (____________): The leader explains the problem to employees as a group, and the group makes the final decision.
To aid in selecting the appropriate decision making strategy, the Normative (Decision-Making) model provides a __________________ that poses ___ questions related to the nature of the situation.
- Decision tree
____________________ are characterized by an ability to recognize the need for change, to create a vision that guides that change, and to acccomplish that change effectively. They seek to empower employees, raise their consciousness through appeals to morality and justice, and inspire employees by providing a vision and sense of mission.
Transformational leaders use _______________, which involves defining the organization's goals and activities in ways that make them more meaningful.