A distinguishing characteristic of the human factors approach to psychology is its reliance on ____________________, which is manifested in its emphasis on person-machine fit.
General systems theory.
Person-machine Fit: From a human factors perspective, performance is the result of an interaction between ___________ and ______________ (or any other non-human element in the work environment), and any performance failure is due to mismatch.
The primary goals of human factors psychology are to ensure that workers ______ the job through effective selection and training, and that the job fits the _____________ and __________________ of the workers.
Title ___ of the _______________________ (ADA) of 1991 requires employers with more than ___ employees to avoid discriminating against people who have a disability, defined as "a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities."
- Americans with Disabilities Act
The ADA does not list those groups that are included in their definition of disability, but DOES list those that are excluded - e.g., ________________, exhibitionism, gender identity disorder not resulting from a physical impairment, compulsive ____________, kleptomania, and psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from current illegal drug use.
The ____________________ decreases the number of days worked in a given work cycle by increasing the hours worked per day.
Bates et al. (1999) found that the compressed workweek has __________ effects on supervisor ratings of employee performance, and employee satisfaction with the work schedule; this is strongest for employee attitudes. It ____________ have a strong impact on objective measures of job performance or absenteeism.
- Does not
____________ gives employees a choice of when to begin and end work while providing a core time (e.g., 10 am to 2 pm) when all employees must be present.
Flextime has positive effects on employee ____________, job ____________, satisfaction with the work schedule, and absenteeism but does not have a strong impact on __________________.
- Self-rated performance
Companies that operate 24 hours per day ordinarily divide the day into 3 workshifts:
- Regular shift (_______ to ________)
- Swing shift (_______ to ________)
- Graveyard shift (________ to ________)
__________ shifts are generally preferred to ___________ shifts, since the latter tend to disrupt _______________, increasing fatigue, concentration difficulties, and errors.
- Circadian rhythms
There is evidence that ___________ rotation is associated with better circadian rhythm synchronization than ___________ shift rotation.
Of the 3 fixed shifts, __________ shift has the most negative impact on family roles and social activities, while the _________ shift is associated with the most social, health, and work-related problems.
______________ has been found to mitigate the negative effects of working the graveyard shift.
Freedom of choice.